Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 5th International Conference on Agriculture and Horticulture Cape town, South Africa.

Day 2 :

OMICS International Agri 2016 International Conference Keynote Speaker Patricia Vit photo
Biography:

Patricia Vit has studied Biology and MSc Food Science at Universidad Simon Bolivar, Venezuela. She became Professor at Universidad de Los Andes in in 1985. She completed her PhD at Cardiff University, UK and Post-doctoral studies from National University of Singapore, School of Medicine and The University of Sydney, School of Medicine. She lived in Ecuador for one year with the Prometeo-SENESCYT grant at Universidad Técnica de Machala. She is the Founder Director of an initiative named Living Museum of Meliponini Bees in the World. She has published more than 100 papers in reputed journals, and 30 books as author or editor.

Abstract:

Megabiodiverse Ecuador is also knwon for the Meliponini entomofauna, with almost 100 species in the three Southernmost provinces El Oro, Loja and Zamora Chinchipe. The species chosen by ancestral knowledge of Ecuadorian stingless bee keepers for pot-honey production are known as “abeja de tierra” Geotrigona leucogastra, “angelita” Tetragonisca angustula, “bermejo” Melipona mimetica, “catiana” Scaptotrigona ederi. Along this research, 18 honeys were collected in El Oro, Esmeraldas, Loja and Manabí provinces. Chemical quality indicators used in the honey standards comprise water, free acidity, hydroxymethylfurfural, reducing sugars, apparent sucrose, ash contents. The quality standards of pot-honeys vary from those suggested by the Codex Alimentarius and adapted by National Honey Regulations for Apis mellifera. Great veriations are observed in our four genera. Geotrigona honey is very different from Apis mellifera and other Meliponini with water contents duplicating the honey standard, and free acidity with more than 800 meq/kg. Ash, hydroxymethylfurfural and apparent sucrose keep the same standard, but reducing sugars are lower than the minimum of 65 g/kg. The Colombian honey norm included new standards for native bees in the annex in 2007, Venezuela suggested to have standards of honey and pot-honey in the same norm in 2013, and Brazil created a norm for Melipona honey in the state of Bahia in 2014. Philippines is working on the concept to have both Apis mellifera and Tetragonula biroi quality standards in one honey norm. The NTE INEN 1572 Ecuadorian honey norm was reviewed in 2016 and decided a new norm is needed for pot-honey.

Keynote Forum

Byoung Ryong Jeong

Gyeongsang National University, South Korea

Keynote: Enhanced tolerance of horticultural plants to abiotic and biotic stresses by silicon

Time : 09:30 - 10:00

OMICS International Agri 2016 International Conference Keynote Speaker Byoung Ryong Jeong photo
Biography:

Byoung Ryong Jeong has completed his PhD at the age of 31 years from Colorado State University, USA, and postdoctoral studies from University of Missouri-Columbia, USA, and Chiba University, Japan. He is a professor in Department of Horticulture and the Dean of College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Republic of Korea. He has published more than 250 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editor-in-chief of Horticulture, Environment and Biotechnology, and president of the Korean Society for Floricultural Science. rnrn

Abstract:

Silicon (Si) has been reported to alleviate abiotic stresses caused by salt, drought, low and high temperatures and metal toxicity, and to improve nutrient imbalance. It also has been found to be beneficial for improving the resistance to insects and pathogens, and therefore for crop quality and yield. It is known that Si gives the resistance to plants by both physically and metabolically. The extent of stress tolerance varies by plant species and even cultivars. Its beneficial effects have been reported to be particularly distinct in monocots such as rice. Yet there have been only limited number of reports on its effect in horticultural plants. Various horticultural plants fed with silicate have been examined in our recent studies for their growth and development, and responses to abiotic and biotic stresses including salt, drought, low and high temperatures, and some pathogens and insects. The species used include Ajuga multiflora, Allium tuberosum, Capsicum annuum, Cotoneaster wilsonii, Dendranthema grandiflorum, Dianthus caryophyllus, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nephrolepsis exaltata, Rosa hybrida, and Salvia splendens. Silicate-fed Dendranthema grandiflorum and Euphorbia pulcherrima tolerated both high temperature and drought stresses, while the control plants were severely affected. Silicate fertilization significantly affected growth of Nephrolepsis exaltata and silicate-treated plants had increased tolerance to temperature stress. Number of Bemisia tabaci naturally infesting Euphorbia pulcherrima in a glasshouse decreased by 91% in the treatment of 50 mg•L-1 K2SiO3 applied as foliar sprays as compared to that in the control. Florets affected by aphids in the control of Salvia splendens ‘Vista Red’ and ‘Sizzler Red’ was 67 and 45% as compared to 0 and 20% in the 100 mg•L-1 K2SiO3 treatment, respectively. Incidence of powdery mildew in Rosa hybrida ‘Remata’ by infection of Sphaerotheca fuliginea significantly decreased by 50 mg• L-1 K2SiO3 applied as foliar sprays as compared to that in the control. Antioxidant enzyme activity and chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) increased by silicate treatment. High salt represents a water deficit due to decreased osmotic potential in the soil solution. Shoot growth of Salvia splendens was strongly retarded by 50 mM NaCl treatment, while it was sustained when the plants were supplied with either 50 or 100 mg•L-1 Si at the same time. Some plug or micropropagated transplants and potted plants also showed their responses in terms of growth, tolerance to temperature or salt stress, ion leakage, and antioxidant enzyme activity as affected by silicate treatment. Incidence of hyperhydric shoots in micropropagated Cotoneaster wilsonii caused by high doses of TDZ and repeated subcultures was significantly reduced by supplementation of the culture medium with silicate. The results suggest strong possibility of enhanced tolerance of horticultural plants to abiotic and biotic stresses mediated by Si.

  • Track 9: Crop Protection & Awareness
    Track 10: Agriculture Law & Policy
    Track 11: Organic Agriculture
    Track 12: Agricultural Extension & Sustaining Practices
    Track 13: Livestock Farming & Genetic Engineering
Location: Central 1
Speaker

Chair

Byoung Ryong Jeong

Gyeongsang National University, South Korea

Speaker

Co-Chair

Fhatuwani N Mudau

University of South Africa, South Africa

Session Introduction

Mahendra P Srivastava

CCS Haryana Agricultural University, India

Title: Pesticides in management of plant diseases: Public perception and ground realities

Time : 10:15 - 10:35

Speaker
Biography:

M P Srivastava is former Director Planning & Head Plant Pathology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, he has been honored with “IPS Recognition Award 2014” in recognition of his contribution to the growth of Indian Phytopathological Society (IPS), and more importantly services rendered towards society in mitigating crop losses due to plant pests. He is a distinguished plant pathologist with 50 years of experience, recognized nationally and internationally for his contributions on post-harvest diseases, multiple resistance in rice, and on technology/knowledge transfer, plant health clinic and fungicides. He is credited with is popularization of Plant Clinic and application of plant pathology knowledge in towards sustainable agriculture.

Abstract:

Plant diseases are known since time immemorial. Outbreaks of several diseases have changed the history of mankind. India is losing annually $ 25.4 Billion [INR 1, 40,000 crores ; (Kumarasami, 2008] of which diseases account for INR 25,000 crores. Worldwide plant pests are responsible for about 40% losses in yield. Main challenge for agriculture is to increase productivity to sustain the need of ever-growing population. Throughout the world pesticides have been widely used to control diseases and pests (Pimental et al, 1997, Horne and Page, 2000) and in future too fungicides will play a crucial role in meeting this challenge. Though pesticides have been successfully used for plant protection and public health, yet a section of society see pesticides with blinkered vision on the pretext that pesticides are responsible for affecting ecosystem, environment and human health. In fact, most of the problem is due to users, who are using recklessly pesticides. In spite of outbursts against pesticides by Rachel Carson in 1962 the process of discovery continued and more effective and safer fungicides such as, SBIs, MBIs (tricyclazole, pyroquilon etc.), strobilurins etc. were developed. Today with the availability of relatively safer and effective fungicides of 4th generation including novel fungicides, most of the diseases can be effectively controlled and crop yields can be improved with least impact on biodiversity. While phenylamides and fosetyl-Al have revolutionized control of downy mildews and phytophthoras, SBIs have offered control of diverse group of fungi, MBIs to rice blast and strobilurins unusually wide array of crop diseases from all four classes of plant pathogens, namely the Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, Deuteromycetes and Oomycetes. Since Silent Spring. another publication Silent Spring Revisited published by American Chemical Society in 1987 also appeared supportive of Silent Spring. However, if used judiciously, following the guidelines of Pesticide Action Network (PAN) and Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (FRAC) such problems are not likely to occur and conversely improve crop yield. It is, however, unfortunate that many of us really lack insight to Materia Medica of plant diseases and most of the problems have occurred due to misuse and abuse of pesticides for which man is responsible and not the fungicides/pesticides (Srivastava, 2009). Surprisingly Europe is strongly discouraging use of chemicals but in one of publications, I cite ”abolishing fungicides in crop production in Germany would cause drastic decline in income, on average equally a monthly salary, but can be even more severe with specific faming system. Some people also think that prior application of pesticides could be more beneficial but it is not true. We need not be over dependent on pesticides but should not give-up pesticides under the influence of rather go for minimal use. The present paper critically analyses to present a balanced view with regard to their positive role in pest management and who is to be blamed responsible for associated hazards – man or pesticides and feasibility of shedding over-reliance on pesticides and mitigating associated hazards.

Upendra Sainju

USDA-ARS, Northern Plains Agricultural Research Laboratory, USA

Title: Particulate and active soil nitrogen fractions in response to sheep grazing in dryland cropping systems

Time : 10:35 - 10:55

Speaker
Biography:

Upendra M Sainju is a research Agronomist, USDA, ARS Northern Plains Agricultural Research Laboratory. He is currently working on the effects of tillage, crop rotation, crop diversity, cropping intensity, and cultural practices on soil aggregation, organic matter concentration, microbial activities, nitrogen mineralization, and carbon and nitrogen sequestration in dryland areas. He is also engaged in studying the effects of irrigation management, nitrogen fertilization rates, and cultural practices in nitrate-nitrogen movement in soil that affects water quality, soil organic matter level, and nitrogen mineralization in irrigated land.

Abstract:

Sheep (Ovis aries L.) grazing, a cost-effective method of weed control compared to herbicide application and tillage, may influence N cycling by consuming crop residue, weeds and returning N through feces and urine to the soil. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of sheep grazing compared to tillage and herbicide application for weed control on soil particulate organic N (PON), microbial biomass N (MBN), and potential N mineralization (PNM) at the 0-30 cm depth in a Blackmore silt loam under dryland cropping systems from 2009 to 2011 in southwestern Montana, USA. Treatments were 3 weed management practices (sheep grazing [grazing], herbicide application [chemical], and tillage [mechanical]) and 2 cropping sequences, continuous spring wheat CSW (Triticum aestivum L.), spring wheat-pea (Pisum sativum L.) or barley (Hordeum vulgaris L.) mixture and hay-fallow (W-P/B-F). The PON and MBN at 0-30 cm were 126 to 620 kg N ha-1 greater in the chemical and mechanical than the grazing treatment with CSW. The PNM at 15-30 cm was 7 to 13 kg N ha-1 greater in the chemical or mechanical than the grazing treatment in 2009 and 2011 and at 5-15 cm was 7 kg N ha-1 greater with W-P/B-F than CSW in 2010. From 2009 to 2011, PON at 0-30 cm reduced from 0.43 Mg N ha-1 yr-1 in the grazing treatment to 0.59 Mg N ha-1 yr-1 in the chemical treatment. Similarly, PNM at 15-30 cm reduced from 0.7 kg N ha-1 yr-1 in the mechanical treatment to 4.1 kg N ha-1 yr-1 in the chemical treatment and at 5-15 cm from 1.8 kg N ha-1 yr-1 with CSW to 5.1 kg N ha-1 yr-1 with W-P/B-F. Removal of crop residue during grazing but negligible N inputs through feces and urine probably reduced soil active and coarse organic matter N fractions with sheep grazing compared to herbicide application and tillage for weed control. Decline in the rate of change from 2009 to 2011 suggests that sheep grazing may stabilize N fractions in the long-term, especially in continuous cropping system.

Speaker
Biography:

Jagadeeshwara K has completed his PhD from Gujarat Agricultural University, Anand, India. He is the Director of Extension, at University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore - a premier institution in the country. He is operating a prestigious project funded by Karnataka State Governament on “Livelihood improvement of Scheduled Caste farm families through integrated farming system (IFS) approach”. He has published more than 30 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an Academic Council Member of reputed institutions.

Abstract:

Majority of resource poor farmers in India, generally practice subsistence farming though they require more production of food to get higher income and employment. Integrated Farming System (IFS) is the best option for them to overcome the problem of high degree of risk and uncertainty. This study was conducted to compare different types of integrated farming systems in peninsular India. Five major farming systems viz., Crop + Dairy, Crop + Sericulture + Dairy, Crop + Dairy + Sheep, Crop + Dairy + Sheep + Piggery and Crop + Dairy + Sheep + Sericulture, (C+D, C+S+D, C+D+SH, C+D+SH+PG, C+D+SH+S) were observed at the study area and selected for analyses. The data were collected from randomly selected 300 resource poor farmers through pretested interview schedule and analyzed by using Cobb-Douglas production function and interpreted. The study revealed that, the mean net income realized was highest in C+D+SH+P (1530$) compared to the net income realized from C+D (559$). However, farmers perusing C+D+SH+S farming systems were able to realize net annual income of 1254$. The study emphasises the need of promoting and supporting farmers to have more number of animal components along with crop cultivation so as to get higher income and employment throughout the year. Finally, the study identifyed the most accepted and profitable supplementary and complementary enterprises for resource poor farmers to get sustainable income throughout the year. The efforts and approaches employed for up- scaling integrated farming among resource poor farmers are discussed in the main paper.

Speaker
Biography:

Hosu Y S holds a Bachelor’s degree in Agricultural Economics and Farm Management from the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria in 2004. He obtained Master’s degree from the University of Ibadan, Nigeria, in 2007 and PhD in Agricultural/Environmental Economics from the University of Fort Hare in 2013. His PhD thesis is a holistic attempt to know the determinants of food system among the poor households in the semi-arid region; the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. He focused on modelling small farms’ optimal productivity under stressed environmental conditions, resource utilization and effective institutional services provision. His study made insight on the necessary conditions to boost smallholder productivity and food security among the small-holder farmers in the Eastern Cape Province. He has authored and co-authored manuscripts and proposal with others. He is the Lead Researcher and Consultant, Sunclare Consults Limited, a-one- stop research outfit for solutions to agriculture and agribusinesses issues based in Nigeria. He is currently a Research Fellow at Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, Eastern Cape.

Abstract:

South Africa is unlikely to catch attention when the nations with food emergency are mentioned due to its well-developed commercial farming. There is no lack of well-intended policies to improve agriculture and food security of its citizens. However, with Human Development index ranking of 118 among 135 countries and Human Poverty of 13.4% and ranking of 85 amidst all policies and strategies of improving the agriculture and food security issues, it defies logic that South Africa has made a lot of motion but not necessarily movement in the right direction. The article from this study is aimed at reviewing the performance of key indicators: per capita land utilization, production and consumption of selected staple foods that cover basic household wellbeing such as maize, dry beans, potato, vegetables, sugar, citrus and apple in the pre and post-apartheid periods of South Africa. We found that there is a declining trend in per capita land cultivation, per capita food production and mixed results of per capita consumption of some major staple foods. The study revealed that population growth in South Africa has not been harnessed and there is possibility of worsening food security in the country. We also found the per capital consumption of maize in South Africa is below 160 kg/person/year recommended by WHO/FAO while per capita consumption of potato and sugar are presently above required kg/person/year. We recommend per capita targeting policy strategies for the improvement of staple food production and dietary balancing to ensure sustainable food security.

Speaker
Biography:

Byoung Ryong Jeong has completed his PhD from Colorado State University, USA, and Post-doctoral studies from University of Missouri-Columbia, USA, and Chiba University, Japan. He is a Professor in Department of Horticulture and the Dean of College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Republic of Korea. He has published more than 250 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an Editor-in-Chief of Horticulture, Environment and Biotechnology, and President of the Korean Society for Floricultural Science

Abstract:

Grafting, an established practice of asexual propagation in many plants, is known to induce abiotic or biotic stress. Transfer of genetic materials during graft healing, from the root to the shoot and vice versa, is interest of investigation for signal transduction pathways at the graft junction using proteomic and microarray techniques. Physiological and proteomic responses were studied at the graft junction between the rootstock and the scion of two tomato genotypes exposed to a standard (23/23°C), normal (25/18°C), or high-low (30/15°C) day/night temperature regimes. Graft junctions had varied responses to different temperature regimes. A high-low, but not a standard or normal, temperature regime induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the form of H2O2 and O2-1 at the graft junction. Many cell protection molecules, including antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and their immunoblots were also induced. Thus it seems that both the rootstock and the scion actively defended against stress by modifying their physiological and proteomic responses to establish a new cellular homeostasis at graft junctions. As a result, many proteins for cellular defense were regulated at the graft junction under different temperature regimes, in addition to the regulation of photosynthetic proteins, ion binding/transport proteins, and protein synthesis. Biomass, physical strength at the graft junction, and vascular transport activity were also affected by the temperature regime. Results provided novel and insightful physiological and proteomic evidences on the responses at the graft junctions of two tomato cultivars to different temperature regimes.

Speaker
Biography:

Sani Y A is an Associate Professor in Agronomy with specialization in Horticultural Production. He obtained his BAgriculture, MSc and PhD degrees from the famous Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria in 1995, 2003 and 2010, respectively. He is a member of several professional bodies and has several publications in reputable national, international journals and numerous research/technical reports to his credit. He is currently a Lecturer/Researcher at the Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria where he is actively involved in teaching, training, research and extension services. He attended several international conferences and trainings across the globe.

Abstract:

A survey was conducted in the year 2014 at the premises of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria (11o11’ N, 07o 38’); located at an altitude of 686 m above sea level in the Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria with annual average rainfall of about 1060 mm. The area is characterized by distinct two seasons; the dry season, comprising of a cold dry period (harmattan) between November and December, and a hot dry period between April and June. The vital part of this work involved the collection, identification and description of some common ornamental plant species found within the premises of the Institute’s environment and was presented in the form of original coloured photographs, identifying its scientific names, family names, English names and their common names. These ornamental plant species were then classified based on their characteristics, mode of propagation and usage (indoor, outdoor, lawns, potted etc). During the survey, about 70 ornamental plant species comprising a total of 24 species of indoor plants, 18 of shading plants, 25 species of hedge plants and three species of lawns were identified, described and documented accordingly. It is hoped that this work would inspire floriculturist, botanist, gardeners, students and other researchers to contribute further into this interesting and attractive field of horticultural landscaping that is usually ignored or given less attention.

Fhatuwani N Mudau

University of South Africa, South Africa

Title: Influence of growth stage harvest on the quality of baby spinach during postharvest storage

Time : 12:15 - 12:35

Speaker
Biography:

Mudau F N completed a B.Sc Agric (Crop Science) at the University of Venda in 1996. He then registered M.Sc. in Horticulture at the University of Stellenbosch where he conducted research on citrus nutrition. He completed a PhD (Horticultural Sciences) at the University of Pretoria and he has done extensive research in herbal medicine. He then joined the Industrial Development Corporation (IDC) under Food and Beverages (Now Agro-Industries) Strategic Business Unit (SBU); HealthCare and Education (SBU) as a Specialist.. He has served as a Board member of South Horticultural Sciences Society, Rotondo Pty Ltd, Berekisanang a subsidiaries company under Industrial Development Corporation. He is a Board member of Crop Production Journal and a reviewer in local and International Journals. He is currently a Full Professor at the University of South Africa. Prof Mudau has a vast experience in project development and implementation in Agro Industries, Education and Healthcare sectors.

Abstract:

Baby spinach is normally harvested during a fairly early stage of the normal spinach, usually between 30 and 45 days after planting. Several studies have shown that concentration of nutrients in spinach may vary owing to a combination of factors. In addition, harvest date/stage after a specific planting date may also play a decisive role in the spinach content as well as postharvest shelf life. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the effect of growth harvest stage on the quality and postharvest storage of baby spinach. Seeds were sown on 3 different occasions, and in each set of occasion, the harvest was performed at 3 growth stages at 7 days intervals. The middle stage was corresponded with the period commonly used for baby spinach by commercial farmers. Throughout the study, when spinach leaves are harvested, they were exposed to 4°C, 10°C and 20°C for 12 days. The first stage, which refers to spinach leaves harvested after 28 days of planting have shown the highest level of antioxidant activity and flavonoid contents during harvest. Thus, the level of antioxidants during harvest was 0.65 mg.g-1 at 4°C, 10°C and 20°C and postharvest (0.43 mg.g-1, 0.35 mg.g-1 and 0.20 mg.g-1 at 4°C, 10°C and 20°C for 12 days, respectively). It was then followed by stage II with 0.29 mg.g-1, 0.23 mg.g-1, and 0.17 mg.g-1 at 4°C, 10°C and 20°C for 12 days, respectively. The least levels of antioxidant activity was observed in the stage III, where spinach leaves were stored at 10°C and 20°C with the value of 0.10 mg.g-1 and 0.02 mg.g-1, respectively. Flavonoids showed similar trend, since highest content of flavonoids was observed in stage I (12 mg.g-1) and II (9.30 mg.g-1) at 4°C for 12 days. Whereas, the lowest flavonoid contents were yielded in stage III, particularly in samples stored at 20°C with 3.56 mg.g-1 for 12 days. However, the level of antioxidants and flavonoids was well maintained at 4°C in all 3 treatments compared to 10°C and 20°C. The study findings suggest that harvesting baby spinach a few days earlier than the commercial timing of harvest may influence the most retain of antioxidant activity and flavonoid contents when stored at 4°C.

  • Young Researchers Forum
Location: Central 1
Speaker

Chair

Mahendra P Srivastava

CCS Haryana Agricultural University, India

Speaker

Co-Chair

Patricia Vit

Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela

Session Introduction

Ambani Richardo Mudau

University of South Africa, South Africa

Title: Does the modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) extend quality of baby spinach leaves on postharvest shelf life?

Time : 12:35 - 12:50

Speaker
Biography:

Mudau A R is on the final phase of his Master’s degree at the College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, University of South Africa. He has recently published a scientific paper with HortTechnology journal based on the findings he presented in the 4th International Conference on Agriculture and Horticulture held in Beijing, China.

Abstract:

Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) has increasingly deployed for its efficiency in retarding the respiration rate and maintaining the quality of fresh produce during postharvest storage. Improperly modified atmospheric environment may negatively impact the quality of produce during postharvest storage. Thus, the selection of suitable and appropriate packaging materials is critical in creating an ideal environment for prolonging the shelf life of fresh-cut vegetables. The influence of MAP on the quality of baby spinach during postharvest storage is assessed in this study. Parameters recorded are antioxidant activity and flavonoids. Grown baby spinach were harvested after 37 days of planting. Equally set of baby spinach leaves were stored under controlled atmosphere (5% O2; 15% CO2; balance N2) and control (78% N2; 21% O2), at 4°C, 10°C and 20°C for 12 days. The results of this study demonstrated that the total antioxidant activity in the baby spinach leaves stored under controlled atmosphere at 4°C after 3 and 12 days of storage period significantly yielded 6.39 mg.g-1 and 4.41 mg.g-1, respectively. Whereas, the lowest total antioxidant activity after 3 days (3.65 mg.g-1) and 12 days (2 mg.g-1) was observed at 20°C in baby spinach leaves stored in normal air atmosphere. Similar trend was evident on flavonoids, under controlled atmosphere at 4°C yielding 25.14 mg.g-1 and 9.15 mg.g-1 after 3 and 12 days, respectively. Samples from normal air showed least flavonoid contents when stored at 20°C yielded 5 mg.g-1 for 12 days. In conclusion, when considering all conditions under which this study was carried out, it is therefore, evident that baby spinach leaves should be stored under controlled atmosphere (5% O2; 15% CO2; balance N2) at 4°C for 9 days to maintain high level of antioxidant activity and flavonoids. Thus, leading to the best quality and also extend the shelf life of the product.

Nurgul Kitir

Yeditepe University, Turkey

Title: Bio Humic Application Effects on soil degredation

Time : 12:50 - 13:05

Speaker
Biography:

Nurgul Kitir, has completed her master degree in Yeditepe University Genetics and Bioengineering Department and she is still a PhD student in this university and has given her qualifying exam. She has published many papers in several national and international journals

Abstract:

Nowadays, the developing countries determined some strategies that target to gain the maximum yield and economic products by using technology on agricultural product as follower of developed countries. The base of these strategies to increase the target productivity amount, the attendance of biodiversity and natural balance sustainability weren’t thought and unbounded chemical input uses have been caused a lot of short and long term environmental problems. It is not enough only to review soil productivity factors and strengthen the soil productivity factors with dense chemical input, to solve the problems that cause degradation of the analyzing and soil productivity limiting factors will compose the important steps. Depending on the dense applications, increasing input uses causes addiction to use increasing chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides to gain the same amount of yield. Also the intensive using of chemicals causes soil degradation. The existing part of the nature as water, air circulation, nutrient element cycle, disease and pathogens auto-control, ion change etc. cycles are effected in the soils that have lost their biodiversity and their lack cycles cause the soil productivity losses. Because of that reasons the supporting activities should be used to increase soil biodiversity. In addition to no till farming systems to use the organic based productions as an input provides the organic material and biodiversity increase in 2-3 years. The gained production will be economic and more production will be provided to the market. Humic acid and derivative organic inputs are provides positive effects on soil contents and problems as high pH, high lime and low organic matter etc. In Turkey there are five places for using leonardite sources as Bursa -Davutlar, Balıkesir-Balya, Adana-Tufanbeyli, Tekirdag-Saray and Konya-Beysehir. NaOH and KOH are used in chemical process to extraction of humic acid and its components but they can be used only in conventional farming and with this chemical process it is not possible to extract of organic acid, amino acid and hormone. Nowadays, organic input sources are very limited and this problem is valid in all areas.

Ransford Opoku Darko

Jiangsu University, China

Title: Irrigation water management and food security

Time : 13:05 - 13:20

Speaker
Biography:

Darko Ransford Opoku is a PhD candidate from University of Cape Coast and doing his doctoral studies from Jiangsu University Research Centre of Fluid Machinery Engineering. He is a research fellow at the Department of Agric Engineering, University of Cape Coast. He has published more than 5 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as a reviewer of some renowned journals.

Abstract:

Crop production depends on the successful implementation of the agricultural and water management technologies. Water is the scarcest resource and the importance of the judicious use of water in agricultural sector for sustaining agricultural growth and the retardation of environmental degradation needs no further elaboration. Water scarcity in agriculture is becoming a major problem due to increasing demand from non-agricultural uses and intensive crop management on existing croplands to meet the needs of an expanding global population. Efficient use of the available irrigation water is therefore of important concern. Even though intensive research in the areas of crop physiology, irrigation engineering, agronomy, and agricultural economics has developed several ways to improve the efficiency of irrigation water, a multidisciplinary approach is often regarded as the best future path to achieve further enhancements in meeting the forthcoming challenge of producing more and safety foods. The study reports on irrigation, water management is an important tool in ensuring food security on the globe. It emphasizes on the future of irrigation technologies focusing on providing the leadership and capacity to capture, develop and promote new irrigation practices and management systems to optimize production.

Adugna A Woldesemayat

University of South Africa, South Africa

Title: De novo assembly and characterization of Monsonia burkeana leaf transcriptome

Time : 14:20- 14:35

Speaker
Biography:

Adugna A Woldesemayat has completed his PhD in 2015 from the University of the the Western Cape (UWC), South Africa in Bioinformatics and is currently a Post-doctoral reserch fellow at the University of South Africa (UNISA), Science Campus, Florida, South Africa. He is currently In-charge of the next generation sequencing (NGS) data analysis and the suppervises postgradate students. He has published several papers in reputed journals

Abstract:

Monsonia (Monsonia burkeana Planch. ex Harv) is one of the most valuable tea and traditional medicinal plants used in Southern Africa. In spite of its wide usage by the local inhabitants, there is very little or no genomic and transcriptomic information regarding this plant in litrature. To provide understanding of the naturally occurring tea and drug specific products and the key pathways responsible for the biosynthesis of these molecules, we sequenced the leaf transcriptome using Illumina MiSeq platform. This generated 800 MB 300x300 paired-end 2,590,652 reads that were assembled de novo in to 46757 transcript sequences. Blast based annotation of the assembled transcripts revealed best hits for homology in other species covering more than 17,800 genes. Functional GO annotation and KEGG pathways showed the enzymes that were involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. A total of 93 KEGG pathways with 15 functional categories and associated genes encoded by more than 90% of the coding transcripts are responsible for the biosynthesis of primary and secondary metabolites. Caffeine metabolism, flavonoid and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and xenobiotics biodegradation, terpenoids and polyketides metabolism are named but few were identified in association with tea quality and therapeutic drugs. More than 80 different gene families such as cytochrome p450 and protein kinase were identified to potentially encode for enzymes related with the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in various pathways. This data gives insight into the M. burkeana leaf tissue in harboring tea and drug specific bioactive chemicals.

Speaker
Biography:

Makgato Manaka has completed his BSc. Agriculture (Soil Science), honours at the age of 25 years from the University of Limpopo. He is currently submitted his MSc. Agriculture Dissertation to the University (UNISA) and with two papers under review for publication in accredited journals. He is serving as a Student research trainee under the programme Professional Development Programme at the ARC VOP.

Abstract:

Increasing human population, decrease in resources and environmental degradation pose serious threat to natural processes such as critical microorganisms that are responsible for life on earth. Agriculture is challenged to develop strategies for sustainability that conserve non-renewable natural resources such as soil. Good agricultural produce and sustainability depend on the soil health maintenance. Soil health is the capacity of a soil to function as a vital living system, within ecosystem and land use boundaries in order to sustain plant productivity and promote plant health. In this study, we assessed soil microbial diversities of Sutherlandia frutescens soils which are responsible for availability Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P) and Carbon (C). The experiment was conducted on the experimental site at the Agricultural Research Council (ARC VOPI) Roodeplaat, Pretoria, South Africa (25°59’S; 28°35’E). The experimental layout was a Latin square with four levels of inoculant per 100 seeds (T0=Control, T1=1gram Inoculant, T2=2grams inoculant and T4=4grams inoculant) replicated four times. Plants and soil samples were collected for analysis. Rhizosphere and Bulk soil samples were sent to ARC’s Plant Protection Research Institute (ARC PPRI) for Carbon Substrate Utilisation Profiles (CSUP), functional diversity and soil microbial enzymatic activity. The data obtained were subjected to non-parametric statistical analysis using STATISTICA 12 (StatSoft, Inc. ©) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and cluster analyses. There was significant statistical difference existed between the CSUP of soil microbial populations. It was clear that CSUP in T0 and T4 differ significantly from T2 but not from T1 and the bulk soil. Nutrients composition released over decomposition or the plant root exudates attract microbial populations that are specialized to utilize the specific compounds rapidly, thus contributing to the difference in CSUP of soil microbial populations. Soil microbial populations differed in sampled plots but not statistically significant in their ability to convert C. There was lowest ß glucosidase activity in T2 and Bulk soil; T2 and T4 had the lowest alkaline phosphatase activities whereas T0, T1 and T4 had the lowest acid phosphatase; and T0 and T4 had the lowest urease activities. Soil microbial diversity and activities did not differ significantly between the sampled treatments. The samples revealed that the overall lowest soil microbial diversity with the highest overall soil microbial activity in the Bulk soil, compared to the other treatments. Considering the results obtained, the soil samples do not represent the profile of healthy soils, which might make the soils prone to unhealthy plants or lower yields due to low microbial activity, and the occurrence of diseases due to the low microbial diversity.

Speaker
Biography:

Salmina N Mokgehle is a PhD candidate under the School of Agriculture, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal working on Wild ginger (Zingiberaceae) species.

Abstract:

Wild ginger (Siphonochilus aethiopicus) is rhizomatous herb which belongs to the family Zingiberaceae. The plant is of great importance because the rhizomes and roots possess great medicinal benefits due to the presence of medicinally significant compound siphonochilone. It has been traditionally used for the treatment of coughs, colds, asthma, headaches, pain, inflammation and malaria. The leaves, rhizomes and roots of Wild ginger were screened for their total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidant activity and concentration of soluble sugars in response to irrigation regimes and nitrogen application rates. Common methods of FRAP, Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric, aluminum chloride (AlCl3) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were employed to determine the antioxidant, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and soluble sugars respectively. The results showed that TPC for leaves varied from 13.92 mg/g GAE under severely stressed conditions with the application of 200N to 82.86 mg/g GAE with application of 100N. The leaves in general recorded much greater TPC content, followed by the roots and rhizomes. It was also found that the total flavonoids content of all plant parts had significant variation, ranging from a low 0.12 mg/g QE for rhizomes under severely stressed (70% ADL) with 0N application rate to 3.60 mg/g QE for leaves under moderately stressed treatments with 150N application amounts. Additionally the results clearly indicate that leaves had greater antioxidant activity than the rhizomes and roots. With soluble sugars however, the roots recorded increased sucrose content followed by fructose and glucose with rhizome and leaves showing the least. Taken together, potent TPC, TFC, antioxidant activity and soluble sugar concentration with the inclusion of cultivation practices could be used as knowledge for conservation purposes of the endangered medicinal species and applied to the industry as natural antioxidants.

Speaker
Biography:

Jacob Liberty, is a new PhD Student at McGill University, Canada, 29 years of age, had his masters degree from the University of Nigeria, Nsukka and Bachelors degree from the University of Maiduguri. His area of specialization is food processiong and storage engineering. He is presently a Lecturer at the Federal University Dutsinma. He has published more than 25 papers in reputed journals.

Abstract:

The present study designed and constructed a post-harvest passive solar tomato dryer of dimension 176 x 152 x 54cm for drying tomato. Quality of the dried crop was evaluated and compared with the fresh ones. The solar dryer consist of solar collector (air heater), 110 x 61 x 10 x 10cm, the drying chamber, 102 x54cm, removal heat storage unit, 40 x 35 x 13cm and drying trays, 43 x 42cm. The physicochemical properties of this crop were evaluated before and after drying. Physicochemical properties evaluated includes: moisture, protein, fat, fibre, ash, carbohydrate and vitamin C, contents. The fresh, open and solar dried samples were analysed for their proximate composition using the recommended method of AOAC. Also, statistical analysis of the data was conducted using analysis of variance (ANOVA) using completely Randomize Design (CRD) and means were separated by Duncan’s New Multiple Range test (DNMRT). Proximate analysis showed that solar dried tomato had significantly (P < 0.05) higher protein, fibre, ash, carbohydrate and vitamin C except for the fat content that was significantly (P < 0.05) higher for all the open sun dried samples than the solar dried and fresh product. The nutrient which is highly affected by sun drying is vitamin C. Result indicates that moisture loss in solar dried tomato was faster and lower than the open dried samples and as such makes the solar dried products of lesser tendency to mould and bacterial growth. Also, the open sun dried samples had to be carried into the sheltered place each time it rained. The solar dried produce is of high quality. Further processing of the dried crops will involve packaging for commercial purposes. This will also help in making these agricultural produce available in a relatively cheap prices in off season and also avert micronutrient deficiencies in diet especially among the low income groups in Nigeria.