Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 5th International Conference on Agriculture and Horticulture Cape town, South Africa.

Day 1 :

OMICS International Agri 2016 International Conference Keynote Speaker Alvin Smucker photo
Biography:

Alvin J M Smucker is working as a Professor of Soil Biophysics at Michigan State University. He received the 2005 Distinguished Faculty, is a fellow in five national and international scientific societies, a double recipient of the Alexandar von Humboldt research award in Germany, a visiting Professor at the Scottish Agricultural College, visiting Research Scientist at the Argonne National Laboratories, Chicago and the Distinguished MacMaster Research Fellow, CSIRO, Australia. His water conservation research received the 2015 MSU Innovator award. He has over 326 publications on plant water use efficiency, root dynamics and rhizosphere ecology. He is the recipient of many patents for agriculture.

Abstract:

Increasing demands for producing sustainable food and cellulosic fiber supplies on small and large farms has become the grand challenge for the 21st Century. Soil water deficits rank among the highest stress limitations to plant production. Although supplemental irrigation, increasing fertilization and manure applications to highly permeable soils may increase seed and biomass production, during the short term, these management practices are simply not sustainable due to elevated leaching losses including nutrients, pesticides, pathogens and animal endocrine and human causmetic disrupting compounds to groundwater supplies. New plant biotechnologies combined with water conservation and prescription nutrient technology provide long-term sustainable crop productivity while improving soil quality. Doubling the water and nutrient holding capacities in plant root zones sustain high productivity of nutritious food crops and biomass on marginal sandy and Oxisolic soils. Installation of subsurface water retention technology (SWRT) membranes in the upper 50 to 75 cm of sandy soils increase both above ground biomass and food production by 40% to 400% with substantial reductions of irrigation water. Today’s new manually and mechanically installed SWRT membranes convert sandy soils into sustainable plant production regions that transform lives and communities. This presentation summarizes how these amazing SWRT membranes increase soil water and nutrient contents in plant root zones and require less irrigation water to double and triple maize, cotton and horitcultural crops in Iraq, Iran, China and the USA. This new SWRT Solutions approach is patented and prepared to save water while gardening or farming to feed everyone in rural and urban locations.

Keynote Forum

Upendra M Sainju

USDA-ARS, Northern Plains Agricultural Research Laboratory, USA

Keynote: Can novel management practice improves soil and environmental quality and sustains crop yield simultaneously?

Time : 10:00- 10:30

OMICS International Agri 2016 International Conference Keynote Speaker Upendra M Sainju photo
Biography:

Upendra M Sainju is a research Agronomist, USDA, ARS Northern Plains Agricultural Research Laboratory. He is currently working on the effects of tillage, crop rotation, crop diversity, cropping intensity, and cultural practices on soil aggregation, organic matter concentration, microbial activities, nitrogen mineralization, and carbon and nitrogen sequestration in dryland areas. He is also engaged in studying the effects of irrigation management, nitrogen fertilization rates, and cultural practices in nitrate-nitrogen movement in soil that affects water quality, soil organic matter level, and nitrogen mineralization in irrigated land.

Abstract:

Little is known about management practices that can simultaneously improve soil and environmental quality and sustain crop yields. The effect of combination of tillage, crop rotation, and N fertilization on soil C and N, global warming potential (GWP), greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI), and malt barley yield and quality were examined, from 2005 to 2011 in eastern Montana and western North Dakota. In both places, no-till barley-pea with N fertilization (NTB-P/N) increased soil organic C (SOC) and total N (STN) by 5-14%, but reduced residual soil NO3-N, GWP, and GHGI by 24-79% compared with the traditional practices (conventional till continuous barley or barley-fallow with N fertilization). Barley yield and quality were similar between the two practices. Novel management practices, such as NTB-P/N, can simultaneously enhance soil and environmental quality and sustain crop yield compared with traditional practices in the northern Great Plains.

Keynote Forum

Modise DM

UNISA, South Africa

Keynote: Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture: Should we be worried?

Time : 10:45- 11:15

OMICS International Agri 2016 International Conference Keynote Speaker Modise DM photo
Biography:

David M Modise holds a BSc Horticulture from the University of Bath (UK), MSc Horticulture from West Virginia University (USA) and PhD Biological Sciences from the University of Nottingham (UK). He was previously a Director, School of Agriculture and Life Sciences and is currently the Deputy Executive Dean at the College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences at UNISA. He has vast university teaching and management experience. His major research interest is in the physiology of food crops with special emphasis on water/drought stress. He has published research articles and book chapters and has supervised postgraduate students and postdoctoral fellows.

Abstract:

Climate Change, a term often used interchangeably with Global Warming, is associated with change in climatic conditions mostly due to human activities, over a prolonged period of time. Human activities such as burning of fossil fuels to produce energy, deforestation, and in fact some agricultural practices, are deemed to invariably increase the concentration of atmospheric gases particularly CO2, methane, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC), thus increasing the average world temperature. The increase in average world temperature can very catastrophic, in that this may cause melting or thawing of snow in artic countries thus resulting in floods and warming of the oceans, sea level can rise and corals get damaged, higher temperatures can result in more heat waves or can result in both EL NINO and LANINA effects. These may in turn have both desirable and undesirable consequences to the agriculture industry. This keynote address will evaluate the world and South African policies and practices that are linked to climate change with the view of determining whether we are addressing climate change issues adequately with regards to agricultural production and subsequently food security.

  • Track 1: Global Warming & Agriculture
    Track 2: Agricultural Biotechnology
    Track 3: Engineering Inputs in Agriculture
    Track 4: Soil Sciences
    Track 5: Agronomy
    Track 6: Horticulture
    Track 7: Agriculture & Forestry- Utilization & Potential Applications
    Track 8: Crop Sciences
Location: Central 1
Speaker

Chair

Alvin Smucker

Michigan State University, USA

Speaker

Co-Chair

Upendra Sainju

USDA, USA

Session Introduction

Mahendra P Srivastava

CCS Haryana Agricultural University, India

Title: Food security through plant health management

Time : 11:15 - 11:35

Speaker
Biography:

M P Srivastava is former Director Planning & Head Plant Pathology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, he has been honored with “IPS Recognition Award 2014” in recognition of his contribution to the growth of Indian Phytopathological Society (IPS), and more importantly services rendered towards society in mitigating crop losses due to plant pests. He is a distinguished plant pathologist with 50 years of experience, recognized nationally and internationally for his contributions on post-harvest diseases, multiple resistance in rice, and on technology/knowledge transfer, plant health clinic and fungicides. He is credited with is popularization of Plant Clinic and application of plant pathology knowledge in towards sustainable agriculture

Abstract:

Food security precisely means availability of food to everyone in all times to come. Food Security can be defined as “when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active healthy life (FAO, 2003). Climatic changes, ever-rising population leading to land crunch, and pests, and diseases pose serious threat to food security. Plant diseases are the biggest threat to food security. Several diseases in the past such as late blight of potato in 1845 in Ireland, coffee rust in Sri Lanka in 1876, Brown leaf spot of rice in 1942 in India caused untold miseries, and changed the history of mankind. Worldwide, pests cause 40% reduction in yield. Monetarily India loses INR 1, 40,000 crores annually due to pest and diseases. To ensure sustained productivity from limited land, it is imperative to employ innovative technology for food production commensurate to meet the food requirement of ever-growing population, and modern know-how on plant health from plant health clinic, which plays a vital role in mitigating losses, assuring food security by providing timely diagnosis and rendering necessary prescription. However, PHC has yet to gain public attention since their existence is insignificant as compared to human clinics. Innovative technology for higher yield such as host resistance, biotechnology, organic farming amongst others, may be adopted but, plants definitely need protection from onslaught of pests, which warrants creation and promotion of well-organized, plant clinic modeled on human clinic, which may provide timely diagnostic and advisory support against diverse ailments free of cost. It is in this backdrop, walk-in-clinics were launched under Global Plant Clinic program (now Plant wise initiative since 2010) in many Afro-Asian and Latin-American countries, which operate in public/market places and offer on the spot solution, but no one knows about the next clinic until announced. On the other hand in USA, Canada and India they are operating at fixed location, mostly as a unit of Plant Pathology Department. In India too plant clinics exist in most of the agricultural universities in India, yet they have to be more organized like clinics for humans. National Horticulture Mission (NHM) in India has come up in a big way towards creation of 128 plant clinics in public and private sector. Let other countries follow suit. A well-organized clinic with required infra-structure, world-class diagnostic lab, and trained and experienced pathologist, entomologist, agronomist, sitting under one roof may provide right diagnosis and remedial measures and farmers need not move from pillar to post. The practitioner, however, must have insight to the so called ‘Materia Medica’ of plant diseases/pests and good knowledge of pesticides and integrated pest management. The clinics encourage integrated pest management and discourage overdependence on pesticides to save biodiversity. However, under severe outbreak pesticides may be employed for providing respite. Clinics monitor pest scenario, issue pest alerts, maintain liaison with satellite channels, keep a watch over alien and destructive pests; produce plant doctors, organize plant health camp to solve prevailing problems. Clinics train, educate and empower farmers with latest know-how on field diagnosis and management of pests and pesticide resistance. Farmers may be communicated through telephony, SMS, email and field visit in case of serious outbreak of plant pests. In such cases mobile clinic van is rushed to affected area. Plant Disease warning and Plant Pathology Courier released in Haryana Agricultural University decades ago by the author, need to be continued. By empowering farmers, losses can be mitigated, to strengthen productivity/food security. Information may also be provided online towards diagnosis and remedies on plant pests and knowledge to students/teachers & farmers through web portal as are provided through www.xsgrowth.com free of cost by Dr Srivastava. Plant health clinics not only provide diagnostic and advisory support but job opportunities too and plant doctors get same respect as physicians in the society. Impact of such clinic has been phenomenal in ushering productivity. Let us join the cause and provide healing touch to the growers by empowering them with knowledge to mitigate losses and boost food security. Establishment of plant clinics at sub-division level is likely to revolutionize plant healthcare, harnessing higher yield, and boosting food security

Metin Turan

Yeditepe University, Turkey

Title: Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as alleviators for soil degradation

Time : 11:35 - 11:55

Speaker
Biography:

Metin Turan has completed his PhD from Ataturk University Soil Science Department. He is currently working as full Professor at Yeditepe University Genetics and Bioengineering Department. He has published more than 100 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an Editorial Board Member of repute.

Abstract:

The long-term development of global socio-economic systems requires the sustainable use of natural resources. The sustainable use of soil resources depends on 3 factors: soil characteristics, environmental conditions, and land use. These factors interact on systems-based principles, where the change in one factor causes alteration in the others. Land degradation can be considered in terms of the loss of actual or potential productivity or utility as a result of natural- or human-induced processes acting upon the land; it is the decline in land quality or reduction in its productivity. The latter comprises important concerns related to eutrophication of surface water, contamination of groundwater, and emissions of trace gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, and NOx) from terrestrial/aquatic ecosystems to the atmosphere. Soil structure is the important property that affects all three degradation processes. Around 3.5% of the two billion totals are estimated to have been degraded that the degradation is reversible only through costly engineering measures, if at all. Just over 10% has been moderately degraded, and this degradation is reversible only through major on-farm investments. Of the nearly 1.5 billion ha in cropland worldwide, about 38% is degraded to some degree. If this trend continues, 1.4–2.8% of total cropland, pasture, and forest land will lost by 2020. Declining yields (or increasing input requirements to maintain yields) could be expected over a much larger area. These data are, however, likely to overestimate the problem, as they do not account for the effects of land improvements, which also appear to be widespread.

Jagadeeshwara K

University of Agricultural Sciences, India

Title: Adaptation measures initiated due to climate change in southern India

Time : 11:55 - 12:15

Speaker
Biography:

Jagadeeshwara K has completed his PhD from Gujarat Agricultural University, Anand, India. He is the Director of Extension, at University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore - a premier institution in the country. He is operating a prestigious project funded by Karnataka State Government on “Livelihood improvement of Scheduled Caste farm families through integrated farming system (IFS) approach”. He has published more than 30 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an Academic Council Member of reputed institutions.

Abstract:

Threats on agriculture and food security are the major causalities of climate change in India and there is a need to understand the effect of climate change on agricultural sector. Analysis of meteorological data shows that there was an upward trend in mean monthly temperature and downward trend in relative humidity and number of wet days. Strategic production management is to be adopted by farmers to mitigate the ill effects of climate change. The study was conducted by interviewing 120 farmers in southern India to understand perceptions of climate change and adaptation measures initiated by them using an Ex post facto design. The results of the study revealed that, 98% of farmers had high perception of changes in rainfall. Though the actual documentation of climatic data indicated there was increase in the rainfall, but farmers perceived that there was a decrease in the rainfall. This trend of perception may be due to increased area under water intensive crops and short period of rainy days. However, 99% of farmers were having high level of perception about changes in temperature. All the farmers perceived that there was decrease in yield, income, soil nutrients and increase in cost of cultivation, pests and diseases, weed infestation due to climate change. Finally the study concludes that, the farmers were initiating adaptation measures as recommended by the UAS, Bangalore, India. Much remains to be done to create awareness and knowledge about the ill-effects of climate change. Systematic development and integrated delivery of extension programs to mitigate ill effects of climate change is needed.

Shubhangi Salokhe

Symbiosis Institute of International Business, India

Title: Tissue Culture: A Boon for Agriculture

Time : 12:15 - 12:35

Speaker
Biography:

Shubhangi Salokhe has completed her PhD from Dr. Punjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola, India. She is a Professor in Agribusiness Department of Symbiosis Institute of International Business, Symbiosis International University. She is having 26 years of experience in research, teaching and consultancy. She has published more than 20 papers in reputed journals.

Abstract:

By 2050, the world’s population will reach 9.1 billion, 34 percent higher than today. Agricultural production must be sufficient to feed us at present and also in the future and with a rising population, growing more food at affordable prices becomes more important. Worldwide demand for food can be satisfied either by increasing the area under production or by improving productivity on existing farmland. It is important to adopt new technologies that ensure optimum results. Availability of disease and pest-free, true to type planting material is an important prerequisite for achieving the desired yield improvement. Biotechnology can provide appropriate new tools for use in solution of specific problems in sustainable agriculture. There is an impact of a new set of agricultural technologies emerging from the fields of biotechnology having potential to advance sustainable agriculture. Tissue culture is not only a popular mean of clonal propagation of many uniform plants but also the most viable and successful method for the production of pathogen free stock material. The technique of plant tissue culture may play a key role in the “Second Green Revolution’’ in which biotechnology and gene modification are being used to improve crop yield and quality.

Speaker
Biography:

Phokele Maponya has completed his PhD from University of South Africa and Post doctoral Fellowship from University of Johannesburg. He has more than 12 years Teaching, Research and Project Management experience. He acted as a Reviewer for Development Southern Africa; International Journal on Bio deterioration & Biodegradation; Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology and Sustainable Development; African Journal of Agricultural Research; Herald Journal of Geography and Regional Planning; Journal of Agricultural Science, Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics and Sociology, South African Journal of Plant and Soil, Journal of Global Agriculture and Ecology and British Journal of Applied Science and Technology. He also serves as a Board Member of the Wudpecker Journal of Educational Research; Global Advance Journal of Arts and Humanities; International Journal of Advance Agricultural Research; World Journal of Agricultural Science; Journal of Agricultural Science; Peak Journal of Agricultural Research and Unique Journal of Agricultural Research. He has published globally in the field of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences and published more than 20 articles in different international peer reviewed journals; 5 peer reviewed conference proceedings and published 7 book chapters. He is currently employed at Agricultural Research Council as Project Manager and Leader.

Abstract:

The Limpopo province is one of the poorest provinces in the country, characterized by high unemployment rate, poverty and lacks of access to a range of resources which results in the majority of the people not being able to secure their livelihoods. The primary aim of this paper was to highlight the status of climate change in the Vhembe district municipality. The following objectives were identified: To describe the status of climate change in the Vhembe district and to identify the determinants of climate change adaptation in the Vhembe district municipality. A representative sample of 150 farmers aged between 18 to 60+ years (46% males and 54% females) participated in the study. The study was conducted in the Vhembe district with special attention being played to the Mutale local municipality. The following two villages were visited: Folovodwe and Rambuda. The purposive sampling method used covered most of the productive farms in the two selected villages and also covered the uniform or homogeneous characteristics of farmers. The sample frame was designed to meet the objectives of the study and it had to adhere to the statistical specifications for accuracy and representativity. The questionnaire was administrated to farmers and included matters relating to climate variability and change. Data was coded, captured and analyzed using SPSS. Descriptive and regressions analyses were conducted. The results showed a positive association among the following variables: Age, female, decreased rainfall, level of education, farming fulltime, climate change information, source of climate information, perception on climate change and climate change adaptation and formal extension.

Speaker
Biography:

PK Chauke is currently working in School of Agriculture, University of Venda, South Africa

Abstract:

The productivity and commitment of extension workers are factors that are largely influenced by their level of on-the-job-satisfaction. This study focuses on agricultural extension officers employed by the Provincial government in 3 districts of Limpopo Province in South Africa, i.e. Vhembe, Capricorn and Sekhukhune. Participants were randomly selected per district and subjected to a 4 Likert Scale-linked questionnaire that wanted to unearth the impact of achievement as an extension officer (very dissatisfied to very satisfied) on one’s satisfaction as an extension officer (very dissatisfied to very satisfied). Collected data were captured into the SPSS Version 22 and analysed through ordinal regression technique. The results of the study provided very informative outcomes that could be effectively used to enhance the work of extension officers in the province and beyond.

Speaker
Biography:

Tame V T has completed his PhD from Federal University of Technology, Yola Nigeria. He is the CEO of Agro Professional Care Foundation Yola. He has published 16 papers in reputed journals, 3 books, and has been serving as an Editorial Board Member of Nigerian Journal of Tropical Agriculture.

Abstract:

The experiment was conducted in the laboratories of the Departments of Chemistry, Adamawa State University Mubi, Nigeria. The treatments for the experiment consisted of two harvesting methods (matured ripened fruits that fell under their own weight and as a result of feeding by birds to the ground and harvested and matured ripened fruit manually harvested from the tree) and it was replicated three times in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Data were collected on chemical properties of shea butter which include acid value, free fatty acid, iodine value, peroxide value, saponification value and unsaponifiable matter, while the physical properties include moisture content, yield, melting point, relative density, and refractive index. The data collected were analyzed statistically using Generalized Linear Model (GLM) procedure of Statistical Analysis System (SAS). The means that were significantly different were separated using Least Significant Difference (LSD). The results showed that there were highly significant differences (P≤0.01) among the harvesting methods. The matured ripened fruits that fell under their own weight and as a result of feeding by birds to the ground and harvested recorded the lowest acid value (2.79), free fatty acid (1.41), lowest iodine value (36.91) and Peroxide value (10.51). The lowest moisture content (0.96%) and highest yield (21.59%) was recorded by harvesting matured ripened fruits that fell under their own weight and as a result of feeding by birds to the ground. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that harvesting matured ripened fruits that fell under their own weight gave the best Shea butter quality.

Speaker
Biography:

Phokele Maponya has completed his PhD from University of South Africa and Post doctoral Fellowship from University of Johannesburg. He has more than 12 years Teaching, Research and Project Management experience. He acted as a Reviewer for Development Southern Africa; International Journal on Bio deterioration & Biodegradation; Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology and Sustainable Development; African Journal of Agricultural Research; Herald Journal of Geography and Regional Planning; Journal of Agricultural Science, Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics and Sociology, South African Journal of Plant and Soil, Journal of Global Agriculture and Ecology and British Journal of Applied Science and Technology. He also serves as a Board Member of the Wudpecker Journal of Educational Research; Global Advance Journal of Arts and Humanities; International Journal of Advance Agricultural Research; World Journal of Agricultural Science; Journal of Agricultural Science; Peak Journal of Agricultural Research and Unique Journal of Agricultural Research. He has published globally in the field of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences and published more than 20 articles in different international peer reviewed journals; 5 peer reviewed conference proceedings and published 7 book chapters. He is currently employed at Agricultural Research Council as Project Manager and Leader.

Abstract:

This paper highlighted factors affecting agricultural market participation and the promotion of the establishment of vegetable markets, fruit markets and nurseries in the Zululand district, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. This entailed taking a representative sample consisting of 50 agricultural projects with 418 beneficiaries participating in the research. The following 5 local municipalities were visited: Mahlabathini, Nongoma, Pongola, Dumbe and Abaqulusi. Quantitative and qualitative design was used as a detailed questionnaire written in English with a focus group discussion, a stakeholder’s discussion and field observations as part of the data collection. A purposive sampling technique was used to select fifty (50) projects, in order to cover uniformity and homogenous characteristics such as infrastructure requirements, skills availability, production challenges, agricultural training needs, water source needs, educational level and others. Data was coded, captured and analyzed with a software package for social sciences (SPSS version 20). The following analysis was conducted: Descriptive and Univariate Regression. The results showed a significant association among the following variables: Age, educational level, farming experience, land acquisition, crops planted, water source, farming fulltime, land size, production inputs, agricultural training and market participation. It is recommended that fruit and vegetable markets be established as well as the creation of a complete, viable agro value chain that will expand community driven agricultural production and processing.

Speaker
Biography:

Hycenth Nahunnaro holds a Doctor of Pathology (Ph.D) Plant Pathology age of 47. He has been involved in teaching and research in College of Agriculture, Jalingo and Mubi between 1989 and 1992. He is currently senior Lecturer with Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola and Head of Crop Protection Department. He served twice as Departmental Postgraduate Coordinator in 2008-2011 and 2013 to date in addition to membership of several University of Committees. He is a member of Plant Protection Society of Nigeria (PPSN), Agricultural Society of Nigeria (ASN) and Entomological Society of Nigeria (ESN). He has attended several National Conferences and has published thirty four (34) Local and International papers

Abstract:

This Laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of two plant extracts (neem Azadirachta indica seeds and ginger-Zingiber officinale rhizomes) on postharvest tuber rot fungi of Irish potato in Yola, Adamawa State. Four fungal species associated with Irish potato tuber rot were isolated and identified in the study, namely; Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum and Penicillium spp. On which three different concentrations of the plant extracts were used (20%, 30% and 40%). Based on frequency of occurrence, it was found that Aspergillus niger had the highest frequency, followed by Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium oxysporum, while Penicillium spp. Had the least occurrence. The results obtained revealed that growth inhibition of the rot causing organisms varied with extract type, extract concentrations and the fungal pathogen. At 20% concentration, neem extract proved more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus flavus (48%) and Fusarium oxysporum (32.3%), while the growth of Penicillium spp. Had 76.7% inhibition. At 40% concentration, the mycelia growth of Penicillium spp. Was inhibited (46.7), and the mycelia growth of both Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium oxysporum were 76% and 51.6% respectively. For Zingiber officinale extract, the mycelia growth of all the isolates were inhibited at the highest concentration (40%), Aspergillus flavus (40%), Fusarium oxysporum (11.1%) and Penicillium spp. (43.3). From these results, it is clear that neem seed extracts could serve as an alternative to the use of synthetic chemicals in controlling post-harvest tuber rot fungi of Irish potato.

Speaker
Biography:

Mustapha A B has completed his PhD from Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria. He is the Departmental PG Coordinator of Crop Production & Horticulture, and also served as Departmental Exam Officer from 2001 to 2006, Departmental SIWES Coordinator from 2010- 2014. He is a member of Weed Science Society of Nigeria (WSSN), Horticultural Society of Nigeria (HORTSON), Agricultural Society of Nigeria (ASN) and Asian Weed Science Society (IWSS). He has published more than 15 papers in reputed journals and attended more than 13 national and international conferences.

Abstract:

Species of the parasitic plant genus Dodder (Cuscuta spp. Cuscutaceae) are distributed worldwide. They are able to attack many plant species, including crops that are important to the people of Adamawa state. The host range of this weed is not entirely known yet. Such understanding is particularly important with respect to valuable crops grown in this area. Dodder extracts all its nutrients and water requirements from the host plant and shades the crop with its dense stem mass, thereby reducing crop yields. An experiment was carried out to determine the host range of Cuscuta campestris among different food crops, and the levels of damage it causes on each host. A pot experiment was conducted in a screen house of the Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria. Nine different crops were used: cotton (Gossypium herbaceum. L), tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum L), pepper (Capsicum frutescens L), soybean (Glycine max L.), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.). The treatments consisted of infestation and parasite-free conditions and were arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD) with four replications. Soybean, cowpea and groundnut had the highest Cuscuta campestris cover scores among the test crops, followed by tomato, pepper and cotton. Across all the infested crops biomass of infested plants was decreased compared with the control treatments with the exception of groundnut that recorded an increase. It can be concluded that soybean, cowpea, groundnut, tomato, pepper and cotton were susceptible to Cuscuta campestris. However, soybean, cowpea and tomato were more sensitive than groundnut, pepper and cotton. While, sorghum, maize and rice were are not sensitive to Cuscuta campestris.

Speaker
Biography:

Sandhimita Mondal has completed her MSC in Microbiology from Calcutta University at 2008 and qualified CSIR-UGC NET in 2009. She has completed Ph. D at 2014 from Visva Bharati University (A central University), West Bengal. Now she is the Head, Department of Microbiology, Techno India University, Kolkata, West Bengal, India. She has published more than 12 papers on the Microbiology, Agrohomeopathy in reputed Journal and reviewer of some peer reviewed journal. Now she is doing project work on Biofertilizer and use of potentized drugs in the field.

Abstract:

The extensive use of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer in agriculture is causing environmental problem. In this situation it is desirable to find out suitable agents, which would increase plant growth without compromising with the quality of food and of soil. High level of salinity deteriorates seed germination, growth and yield of crops in cultivated lands. There is no effective remedy to mitigate this global problem. In homeopathy a substance, which produces morbid symptoms at high doses on healthy individuals, ameliorates the disease in a patient showing similar symptoms at ultra low doses. During the last seven years, we have observed that, certain plant growth retardants promote growth of crops at ultrahigh dilutions. Of the substances tested (2-chloroethyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride (CCC) proved most effective in increasing photosynthesis and plant growth. Following the principle of homeopathy, CCC 200CH was prepared by successive dilution followed by succession. The purpose of the present study is to see whether potentized Natrum mur could mitigate salt stress in germinating cowpea seeds and to see if plant growth inhibitors serve as growth promoters at their ultra low doses. Water-soaked seeds were kept over moist filter paper in covered petridishes which were divided into five groups: 1) unstressed and untreated control in sterile distilled water, 2) seeds pretreated with 90% ethanol, 3) seeds pretreated with Natrum mur 200CH and then kept in sterile distilled water, 4) in 100mM sodium chloride solution and 5) seeds pretreated with Natrum mur 200CH and then transferred to 100mM NaCl solution. Both Natrum mur 200 CH and its diluent medium 90% ethanol were diluted with distilled water 1:100 before use for treatment. No fertilizers and pesticides were applied in the plots under experiment. CCC 200CH was used in a field trial at the Rice Research Station, Government of West Bengal, Chinsurah, Hooghly, West Bengal during the wet season. CCC 200CH was diluted with water 1:100 and applied by foliar spray on rice plants 22 days after transplantation. A second treatment was given after 15days. At ultra high dilution the same drug produces the opposite effect promoting growth and yield of the plant tested. Potentized Natrum mur can be safely used with profit on plants grown on brackish soil. CCC 200CH significantly increased chlorophyll, protein and sugar in the leaves. It is concluded that CCC 200CH promoted growth and yield in rice varieties tested under natural field condition.