Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 10th International Conference on Agriculture & Horticulture London, UK.

Day 2 :

Keynote Forum

Yuke He

Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, SIBS-CAS, China

Keynote: Epigenetic control of leafy heads in Brassica crops

Time : 00:00

OMICS International Agri 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Yuke He photo
Biography:

Yuke He graduated from Horticulture Department, Northwestern Agricultural University in Dec of 1981, studied in Institute for Horticultural Plant Breeding, Wageningen, The Netherlands from 1985 to 1987, and got Ph.D. degree from Biology Department, Lanzhou University in June of 1991, worked as post-doc in Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences from 1991-to 1993, and worked as associate professor in Horticulture Department, Northwestern Agricultural University from 1987 and professor in Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology & Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences from 1993, and acted as the deputy director of Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology & Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences during 2011-2015, and the head of Joint Lab of Molecular Breeding from 2010.

Abstract:

Leafy head is one type of important vegetable product composed of incurved leaves. Several crops producing leafy head show the leaves with downward curvature, flatness and incurvature at seedling, rosette and heading stages, respectively. Physiological studies have shown that the formation of leafy head is affected by internal elements such as C/N ratio and source/sink ratios and environmental factors such as temperature, light intensity and photoperiod. However, genetic basis for formation of leafy heads is unclear. In the previous study, we used flat and incurved leaves of Chinese cabbage to isolate BcpLH (Brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis Leafy Heads) gene from a cDNA library by differential hybridization. By Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, we transferred brp-miR319a gene to a round-head variety. In the transgenic lines, miR319a-targeted genes were down-regulated, while the round heads were modified into oblong heads. In the head leaves of the transgenic plants, TCP genes were downregulated by exogenous miR319a. The marginal regions of lateral areas in these head leaves were extremely wavy and knotted, apparently due to prolonged and enhanced cell division and vein differentiation in hydathode regions. The accumulation and distribution of miR319a in head leaves affect head shape, and artificial miR319a is useful for genetic improvement of head shape for favorable vegetable products. On the other hand, we found that BrpSPL9-2 (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis Squamosa Promoter Binding-Like 9-2), a target gene of microRNA brp-miR156, controls the heading time of Chinese cabbage. Overexpression of a miR156-resistant form of BrpSPL9 caused leaf curvature (folding) to occur much earlier, causing early time of leaf heading. By contrast, overexpression of miR156 delayed leaf curvature so it occurred in later leaves, resulting in a delay of leaf heading. BrpSPL9 genes control heading time by accelerating adult development, and thus are potentially important for genetic improvement of earliness of Chinese cabbage and other crops. On the other hand, natural antisense transcripts of flowering inhibiting genes BrpFLC tune the timing of head maturity by regulation of the flowering time. Our findings suggest that miRNAs and non-coding RNAs control the shape, size and timing of leafy head in Brassica crops, thus provide an innovative approach to epigenetic manipulation of agricultural products. 

Keynote Forum

Rainer Roehe

Professor, Scotland’s Rural College, United Kingdom

Keynote: The potential impact of the microbiome in future agriculture

Time : 00:00

OMICS International Agri 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Rainer Roehe photo
Biography:

Rainer Roehe is Professor of Animal Genetics and Microbiome at SRUC. He has a long-term carrier in animal breeding and genomics using trials and cutting-edge bioinformatics to understand the genomic architecture of complex traits in farmed animals. His current research is focusing on host genetic interactions with the microbiome in ruminants and monogastrics to genetically improve important animal trait such as growth, feed conversion efficiency, meat quality, animal stress susceptibility, health, methane emissions, etc. He is using whole genome metagenomic sequencing of samples from the rumen and the intestinal tract to simultaneously identify the relative abundance of the microbial community and the microbial genes. Relating this information to important traits, he developed a new microbiome strategy for improvement of complex traits. The strategy can be used more generally for soil microbial improvement, plant and animal breeding and nutrition, and even to identify the impact of the microbiome on human health.

Abstract:

General aim: Most microbial communities are living in symbiosis with the host (plant, animals) so that improvement of their interactions, e.g. by genetics, nutrition, is expected to result in an increase in performance, health, efficiency and less environmental impact of production. For enhancement of plant performances many microbial products (biofertility and biocontrol) are developed which valued USD 1 billion in 2012 and expected to exceed USD 7 billion in 2019. For animal breeding, our own results indicate that there is a host genetic effect on the composition of the microbial community. Animal breeding is known to be very cost-effective because the genetic improvement is cumulative, persistent and can potentially be disseminated worldwide. The purpose of this study is to give a general overview of the impact of the microbiome on plant and animal production and to provide strategies to use microbial information in breeding, nutritional intervention, etc. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Metagenomic whole genome sequencing of the microbial community is very informative to provide the composition of microbial community and in particular the microbial gene abundances, which were related to traits. Findings: The relative abundances of the microbial community and in particular the microbial genes are closely related to feed conversion efficiency (FCE) and methane emissions (CH4) in bovine explaining 86% and 81% of the variation of these traits, respectively. Additionally, most microbial genes identified could be associated with biological mechanisms of those traits. Conclusion & Significance: The relative abundance of the significant microbial genes is recommended to be used to predict the traits of interest, which can be used for their improvement using genetic selection, nutritional intervention, etc. (Fig. 1). In cases, in which performance testing is very costly (as for FCE and CH4); this methodology is substantially more cost-effective and will improve symbiotic effects between microbiome and host. 

  • YRF
Location: 2

Chair

Kelly T Morganl

University of Florida, USA

Biography:

Wahengbam Elizabeth Devi has completed her Bachelor of Technology in 2012 and Master of Technology in Food Process Engineering in 2014. In 2014, just after the Master Degree, she has enrolled PhD as a UGC National Fellow in the Department of Food Engineering and Technology, Tezpur University, India. Her research interest includes Waste Utilization, Product Development, Extraction of Compounds, Food Fortification, Product Development, Food Processing, Drying Kinetics and Rehydration Kinetics of Food Products. Currently, she is working in Newton Bhabha Fellow at the School of Biological Sciences, Institute for Global Food Security, Queen’s University Belfast, Northern Ireland.

Abstract:

Aready to eat hydro-thermally treated iron fortified brown rice was prepared in the laboratory from a low amylose rice variety called ‘chokua’. The developed product is prepared by parboiling of brown rice, deviating from the traditional method of producing ‘komal chawal’ meaning ‘soft rice’, which is prepared by parboiling of rough rice. For effecting fortification by soaking of brown rice at the first step of parboiling, five levels of iron concentration were used. Fortification by soaking for 90min below the gelatinization temperature was found to be a favorable condition for subsequent steaming process. Dried rice grains were polished for various degrees and were found to render into an edible form after warm water soaking, i.e. cooked state. The iron content of cooked rice was measured by XRF. Iron content in the product was higher when the fortification concentration was high, and was low when the degree of polishing was high. Range of 1.72 to 12mg of iron per 100g of rice as obtained by XRF measurements was within the range considered as acceptable for daily requirement. RVA study reveals that the kernel and flour properties are tremendously altered under pressure steaming conditions. Texture profile analysis reveals that the warm water soaked fortified rice for 15-20min gives the hardness value of nearly similar to that of cooked rice. Wide angle X-ray diffractography (XRD) of raw rice flour shows typical A-type starch diffraction pattern with peaks at 2 values near 15.07°, 17.76°, and 23.01°, whereas iron fortified rice shows peak values at the ranges of 12.90 and 19.64. This process rice has low GI. This processing condition for the development of fortified ready to eat rice will be considered for preparing the product as a ready to eat rice for the vulnerable people as well as the meal for disaster victims.

Biography:

Jagajjit Sahu is working as a Postdoctoral research fellow at School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen. He has more than eight years of experience in the field of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology. He has an extensive understanding of the cutting-edge technology and approaches. His main area of interests is High-Throughput Data Analysis, Mathematical Modelling for Network Biology, Scientometrics Analysis, etc. He is well-versed in R, Perl and Database development.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: There has been an upsurge interest for Scientometrics in the last decade but still an ample amount of literature data is still waiting to be mined. Despite, being one of the most important cereal crops, no similar analysis has been reported using the publication data regarding barley.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: The analysis was performed using several R scripts and Bioconductor packages. The package, RISmed was used to search for obtaining the initial data using keywords “Barley” and “Hordeum vulgare” within the Title/ Abstract in PubMed which were later restricted based on their publication date between 1st January 2007 to 31st December 2016. The very next step was to screen these PubMed IDs which were cited on the Web of Science (WoS) server and information about the selected articles was downloaded. Using R scripts, the bibliometric analysis was performed followed by co-author and collaboration networks. Conceptual structure was derived with the help of word co-occurrences analysis. Findings: In this study, the aim was to look into the nature of the reports on Barley published in the last 10 years. As expected, a year wise increasing trend was observed in the number of publications. Among 6106 PubMed reports retrieved, 5375 were selected based on their presence in WoS. These reports were published in 694 journals with Plos One containing the highest number of publications which is 222. The Annual Percentage Growth Rate was 90.27382 and the collaboration Index was 2.9. The most productive country was USA with 700 articles and a total citation of 16976. The upshot of the study provides a great insight into the works carried out on barley in the last decade and the research areas that are in limelight especially in the field of crop science.

Biography:

Simunji Simunji is a PhD student at University of Zambia and he is working for Golden Valley Agricultural Research Trust (GART). He has experience in applied
research mainly in conservation farming as an Agronomist since 2004. The study was conducted to determine improved methods of optimizing water and nitrogen
use efficiency in conservation farming systems to increase yields of maize.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: About 80% of the one million five hundred smallholder farmers in Zambia depend on producing maize (Zea mays) which is a major staple food for over 90% of the Zambians. Productivity of the maize crop among the smallholder farmers is quite low giving a national average yield of 2.3 tons per hectare. The major causes of low yields countrywide are attributed to prolonged droughts, low soil fertility, insufficient plant nutrients and poor farming practices. The purpose of this study is to evaluate performance of drought and Low N tolerant maize genotypes in the conservation farming system and identifying maize – cowpea combinations for high maize productivity in the CF system. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: The trials were established at two sites of different soil types. Three maize varieties ZMS 606, GV 640 and GV 635 were evaluated for water and nitrogen use efficiency under conservation and conventional farming systems. The experimental design used was split plot in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Findings: Between the two sites, Chisamba produced higher maize grain yield (7960kg ha-1) than Batoka (4453kg ha-1). Maize grain yield in conservation farming system was significantly higher at P<0.05 by 30% than in conventional farming system. ZMS 606 and GV 640 were superior over GV 635 during 2015/2016 and 2016/17 growing seasons respectively. Cowpea genotype BB 14-16-2-2 significantly contributed to high yields of maize. Conclusion & Significance: Conservation farming performed better than conventional farming system on improved maize varieties. Smallholder farmers in Zambia can increase maize productivity through use of conservation farming system and improved maize varieties due high water and nitrogen use efficiency. Recommendations are made for farmers to select improved high water and nitrogen efficient maize varieties to optimize productivity of maize in conservation farming.

Biography:

Malambane Goitseone is a PhD student at Tottori University, Japan. His current research is mainly on drought tolerant genes of a wild watermelon species that grow and strive in the Kalahari Desert under very harsh conditions. Currently, he focuses on the characterization of the genes expressed during the acclimatization
of the crop during its exposure to moisture and slight stress.

Abstract:

Ethylene (C2H4), a phytohormone that is produced in response to both abiotic and biotic stresses, is an important factor in the plant-microbe interaction. It is produced from the freshly cut wounds and has shown to be a major limiting factor in successful Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation. In this study, experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of ethylene inhibitors on the genetic transformation in wild watermelon. Two chemical ethylene inhibitors silver nitrate (AgNO3) and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), and a plasmid pBBRacdS harboring a 1-Aminicyclopropane-carboxylic Acid (ACC) deaminase gene for which cleaves ethylene precursor ACC into α-ketobutyrate and ammonia, were used in the experiment. Evolved ethylene gas from the watermelon explants inoculated with Agrobacterium was quantified using a gas chromatography, and the results shows that explants inoculated with the Agrobacterium harboring pBBRacdS was highly effective in inhibiting ethylene evolution as the amount recorded from 3-7 days after inoculation was lower as compared to the other treatments. The GUS histochemical assay using pIG121-GUSint reporter gene plasmid after 7 days of co-cultivation shows that pBBRacdS was more effective in gene transfer with 46% of the explants been stained blue, followed by AVG (22%) and AgNO3 (13%) treatments in wild watermelon explants. The spectrophotometric GUS enzyme assay results indicates a higher gene transfer in explants harboring plasmid with ACC deaminase gene as shown with a higher rate of nitrophenol production (8.68 nmols min-1 g-1) as compared to those with chemical inhibitors AVG and AgNO3 (5.31 and 4.54 nmoles min-1 g-1, respectively). Understanding the effectiveness of different ethylene inhibitors will be beneficial for improving the efficiency of the Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer in crop plants of interest.

Biography:

Geetanjali Baruah is a PhD Scholar in the Department of Agricultural Biotechnology at Assam Agricultural University, India. She has five years of research experience in the field of Promoter Analysis of Geminivirus and Application of Bioinformatics tools.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Although promoters are an essential part of heterologous expression systems there have been a scanty number of reports available for successful isolation of novel promoters especially in the case of tissue specific expression. In addition to that, systems biology approach has not been used widely to delineate regulatory elements of promoters. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: In this study, an attempt has been made to characterize a novel bi-directional promoter from the Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV, family: Geminiviridae) by both transient and transgenic assays to satisfy such demands. We have made several sequential deletion constructs of the bidirectional promoter of ICMV, both in the viral-sense orientation (driving the expression of AV1/ coat protein and AV2; the CP-promoter) and in the complementary-sense orientation (driving the expression of Replication associated protein and other 3 ORFs; the Rep-promoter). The deletion-constructs, two for each of these promoters were made in pBI121 binary vector driving the expression of the Gus gene; care was taken not to delete key motifs such as TATA box (using PlantCARE analysis). Transient as well as transgenic expression was assayed. Findings: In transient expression assay in Agrobacterium and tobacco, the deleted versions (del-1) of both the promoters showed higher expression than the full-length promoters of CP and Rep. Interestingly, all the promoter constructs showed phloem specific expression. Similar observations were found in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants, raised using the full-length CP, full-length Rep and their del-1 constructs. Alongside, transcription factor (TF) binding analysis using TRANSFAC for the promoter sequences showed that the TF; CDC5 (a known transcription enhancer) was unique and over-represented in CP del-1 construct showing the highest expression. It is the first report of comparison for the deletion constructs of the viral-sense and complementary-sense cassava mosaic virus promoters and their phloem-limited expressions.

Biography:

Simranbir Kaur is pursuing her PhD at Punjab Agricultural University, India. Her interests include “Horticultural sciences, strategic studies in commercial fruit production and post-harvest studies”. She has spent approximately five years in research studies on fruit crops in Department of Fruit Sciences. She completed her Master’s degree in Fruit Sciences at Punjab Agricultural University, India from 2012-2014.

Abstract:

The potential of hexanal, GRAS (generally regarded as safe) compound was investigated for maintaining the quality and enhancing shelf life of table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Flame Seedless during 2016 and 2017 respectively. Grape bunches were harvested at commercial mature stage and treated with various concentrations of hexanal 0.010, 0.015 & 0.020% for 5 minutes followed by cold storage (3-4°C, 90-95% RH). Fruit was analyzed for various physico-chemical attributes after 15, 30, 45 and 60 days of storage. Hexanal @ 0.010 % effectively maintained berry firmness and cluster rachis freshness, stabilized anthocyanins and phenolic components and reduced poly methyl esterase activity. Additionally, it also retarded total soluble solids (TSS) and acidity degradation during entire storage period as compared to control. The significant physiological weight loss (PLW) reduction and maximum palatability rating was recorded in bunches treated with hexanal @ 0.010% along with no decay losses. The minimum concentration of hexanal (0.010%) exhibited superior fruit quality attributes. Based on results of this study, it can be concluded that hexanal @ 0.010% to be the most suitable postharvest treatment in maintaining physico-chemical traits i.e. storage quality and improving shelf-life of grapes cv. Flame Seedless for 60 days under cold conditions.

Biography:

Funda Yoldas was born in Izmir, Turkey. She’s completed her primary and elementary education at Yavuz Selim primary school in Izmır. And now she’s studying and also working at Ege University. Also she takes courses from the Faculty of Agriculture to improve yourself and degree. Her studies are about vegetable production, production planning, and relates to the management of alternative products. She has many studies, which are received promoting achievement and the award in her Country.

Abstract:

The study was carried out in Odemis Vocational High School’s practice and research field, and Bozdag plateau. Tomato seedlings were planted in 75x40 cm planting distance as 15 plants in each plot. 2 locations, 2 varieties (Delphin F1-Elitra Company, V1; Newton F1-Syngenta Company, V2), two years were used in randomized block design in three repeats. Number of green fruits per plant (pcs), green fruit total yield (kg/da) were studied. In the study, the results of the first year, the green fruit total yield were found to have statistically significant levels. The highest yield with a value of 743, 13 kg (Bozdag) were obtained in first year. In second year, the highest value was obtained from Newton F1 (2768, 37 kg). In Odemis location, highest yield with a value of 2531, 94 kg were obtained in second year. The highest number of green fruits per plant with a value of 4, 60 pcs (Odemis) were obtained in first year. In second year, the highest value was obtained from Newton F1 (13, 04 pcs). In Odemis location, highest value of 13, 23 were obtained in second year.

Biography:

Ryan Rienzie is a young researcher and academician in the field of Plant Pathology and Pesticide Technology. His research focuses on Nanotechnology applications on plant disease control and management.

Abstract:

Cu2+ is one of the major active ingredients which is widely being used in many agricultural biocides due to its relative effectiveness in terms of reduction of inoculum level and lower production cost. However, Cu is known as a heavy metal that pollutes ecosystems and thereby leading to bioaccumulation. Nanotechnological approaches permit controlled release of active ingredients to retain on the target surface for an extended time and further requires low loading. Erwinia carotovora is a soil borne bacterium that causes soft rot in many cash crops including potato. At present in Sri Lanka, the disease is found to be prevailing in the fields in which the cut tubers are being used as planting material, though not encouraged. In this study, Cu-montmorillonite (Cu-MMT) nano composites were prepared and spray coated with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) at three levels of viscosity (2.5, 5 & 7.5 g/L) as antimicrobial formulations and then characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Furthermore, all three nano composites were tested using different weights for their in-vitro antibacterial properties. Accordingly, the PXRD patterns showed a basal value of 1.23 nm which has increased compared to the Na- MMT original nano composites used (1.19 nm). SEM images showed that the plate like layered structure is continues to be remaining and FTIR spectra further confirmed the bonding interaction between Cu-MMT and CMC. Nanocomposites coated with CMC with different viscosities were tested using different weights exerted antibacterial activity on E. carotovora at a cell concentration of 2x106 colony forming units /mL, and the level of inhibition was increased with the weight used. When Cu2+ ions are intercalated into MMT interlayer space, it enhances slow releasing nature of Cu2+ while improving the textural properties while the CMC coating further triggers their slow releasing activity. The outcome of the present study is to be further experimented towards applying as seed/tuber
treatments where the problem prevails.

Biography:

Rinku V Patel has her expertise in Evaluation of Seaweed Biofertilizer and its Application for Sustainable Development. She has passion for research activity based on improving the soil health and organic farming. Her research work model is based on production of seaweed liquid fertilizer and its application to evaluate its effect on maximum crop yield with respect to quantitative and qualitative assessment. Organic farming is the way forward to green technology with sustainable development as it is ecofriendly and economical method. She has one year of teaching experience in Agriculture University and two years of research experience in Environmental Science as UGC-JRF.

Abstract:

The aim of this study was evaluation of the effect of aging germination and activity of antioxidant enzymes in seeds of Allium cepa L. and Brassica oleracea var capitata with seed priming treatment. In the present paper the different seaweed extract from Ulva lactuca L. (G1), U. reticulata forsskal (G2), Padina pavonica L. (B3), Sargassum johnstonii Setchell & Gardner (B4), Kappaphycus alvarezii (R5) and Gracillaria corticata J. Ag. (R6) was applied as seed priming and performed prior to accelerated ageing treatment with the investigation of activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) during accelerated aging. Our result indicates that to enhance germination characteristics in aged seeds with priming treatment also reveals positive effect of seed priming on the germination percentage, vigour index, seedling length and antioxidant activity of enzyme. The highest germination percentage, vigour index, seedling length and enzyme activity were achieved in given priming treatment with aging (12 day of aging) as compared to control condition (0 day of aging).

Biography:

Maria Luisa Raimondo is a Plant Pathology PhD and actually have a research fellowship in the Department of Sciences of Agriculture, Food and Environment in Foggia, Italy. Her main expertises are in taxonomic studies of fungi by morphological and molecular tools, as well as by use of Bionformatic softwares. She collaborates in several research projects related to Plant Pathology and described seven novel fungal species by molecular approaches. Dr. Maria Luisa Raimondo has been also interesting to research and study new control means by biostimulants, resistance inducers, fungal antagonists and biocides substances

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Plectosphaerella species have been isolated from different hosts throughout the world such as basil, tomato, sunflower, soybean, cucurbits, pumpkin, endive, rocket, and Lamb lettuce. To date Plectosphaerella genus consists of 12 species such as Pa. alismatis, Pa citrulli, Pa. cucumerina, Pa. delsorboi, Pa. melonis, Pa. oligotrophica, Pa. oratosquillae, Pa. pauciseptata, Pa. plurivora, Pa. populi, Pa. ramiseptata and Pa. sinensis. The most common and known species of Plectosphaerella is Pa. cucumerina, which has been reported as pathogen and endophyte from different horticultural crops as well as biological agent to control of Galium spurium, Sagittaria trifolia and nematodes of potato. Aim: The purpose of this study is to ascertain the role that these fungi play in affected horticultural crops by pathogenicity tests. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Nine Plectosphaerella species were artificially inoculated on three different hosts (basil, pepper and tomato) to perform pathogenicity tests in-vitro (detaches lives) and in-vivo (young 30-day old plants) conditions. The pathogenicity tests were carried out in a greenhouse with experimental design consisting of ‘two independent batches’. Each host ×
isolate combination was replicated five times. The disease severities were recorded after 15-35 days after incubation on leaf surface and on roots and collar showing symptoms. Findings: Pathogenicity tests demonstrated that except for Pa. oratosquillae, all Plectosphaerella species essayed in this study are able to cause disease symptoms on all hosts used with different disease severity degrees. Plectosphaerella paucisepatata and Pa. plurivora showed a vascular behavior while the other seven species a parenchymatous behavior. Finally, Pa. ramiseptata resulted to be the most pathogenic species on all the three hosts. Conclusion & Significance: We consider that the Plectosphaerella species investigated in the present study are not endophytic fungi, but pathogenic fungi as they cause necrosis symptoms with different degrees of disease severity.

Biography:

Weerasin Sonjaroon is pursuing his PhD program in Department of Botany at Kasetsart Univeristy. He is interested in Plant Hormone and Plant Physiology.
Recently, global warming predictions suggest an increase in the temperature by 0.3°C to 0.7°C from 2016 to 2035 (IPCC, 2013). High temperature affects normal plant growth and productivity (Havaux 1993). Brassinosteroids (BRs) can act as a plant growth regulator. BRs has been applied to increase the crop yield as well as to mitigate the effects of biotic and abiotic stresses in plant (Yu et al., 2004). Currently, there are efforts to utilize EBR substances in agriculture. Nevertheless, the extraction of natural BRs from explants has been generally low, and too expensive for large-scale applications (Grove et al. 1979: Serna et al. 2012). Therefore, I offer brassinosteroid mimics which can increase photosynthesis in rice under heat stress similar to natural BRs.

Abstract:

The Epibrassinolide (EBR) is a steroids plant growth regulator. The 7,8-dihydro-8α-20-hydroxyecdysone (DHECD) and 7,8-dihydro-5α,8α-20-hydroxyecdysone (αDHECD)-a brassinosteroid mimics which has a chemical structure similar to natural BRs and functions like a BR on the physiological responses of rice under heat stress. In this experiment, we continually applied
water, EBR, DHECD and αDHECD on rice leaves every other day for 4 times. Rice was exposed to two differences, the temperature in a greenhouse where the temperature was controlled at 30/26oC day/night (normal temperature) and 40/30oC day/night (high temperature) for 7days. The treatments consisted of: control plants; control plants treated with EBR, DEHCD and αDHECD; heatstressed control plants; heat-stressed plants treated with EBR, DEHCD and αDHECD foliar application at the reproductive growth stage. EBR, DHECD and αDHECD were effective in increasing the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, Intercellular CO2 concentration and transpiration rate at normal temperature. Under heat stress, EBR, DHECD and αDHECD steadily enhanced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, Intercellular CO2 concentration and transpiration rate. The results indicated that the foliar application of EBR, DHECD and αDHECD continually during reproductive growth could enhance heat tolerance in rice by increasing photosynthetic performance under high temperature stress.

Biography:

Zaheer Ahmad Nazar is currently working at University of the Punjab, Pakistan.

Abstract:

Sugarcane yield depends upon various agro-morphological traits, viz., stalk number, cane height, cane girth, sugar recovery and smut resistance. Detection of Quantitative Traits Loci (QTLs) linked with these traits could greatly help in marker-assisted selection of sugarcane lines in various breeding programs. Structure and TASSEL software based integration of genotypic and phenotypic data of 103 sugarcane genotypes resulted in in the identification of eighty-seven (87) highly associated alleles (p≤0.05), 34 with whip smut resistance; 27 with sugar recovery; 13 with cane weight and 20 with each of cane height and girth. The phenotypic variance (R2-values) explained by the linked alleles ranged 2.81-23.46% for cane height, 1.75-12.8% for cane girth, 2.9-14.34% of cane weight, 2.67-22.5% for sugar recovery and 3.1-24.6% for whip smut. The varying proportions of phenotypic variance explained by the associated alleles indicate that these traits may be controlled by the additive effect of multiple genes. These are in fact the genuine quantitative traits. Moreover, the alleles showing maximum degree of association for cane height (52-121), cane girth (82-184), sugar recovery (51-131), cane weight and smut resistance (51-145 & 51-146) could best be selected for marker assisted selection of sugarcane lines for these traits.

  • Agricultural Engineering | Agriculture & Food Security | Plant Science | Agricultural Production Systems | Agricultural Biotechnology | Fertilizer & Pesticide | Agriculture & Forestry | Crop Sciences | Soil & Water Management | Organic Farming

Chair

Yuke He,

Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, China

Co-Chair

Idris Abd Ghani

University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia

Biography:

P S Chaudhuri is a Professor of Zoology in Tripura University (A Central University) and did his PG and PhD from the Calcutta University, Kolkata. He is an eminent Earthworm Scientist with more than 80 research papers in national and international journals of repute. He is the author of the book “Kenchor Jeevan Baichitra: Kencho Prajukti (2006)” written in Bengali on the Biology and Ecology of Earthworms in North-East India with special emphasis on vermiculture and vermicomposting. He has participated in more than 25 National and International Symposia and visited Avignon (France) 1990, Vigo (Spain) in 1998, Cardiff (UK) 2002 and Shanghai (China) 2016 to present his research papers in International Symposia on Earthworm Ecology and Agricultural Sciences. He was elected as the Fellow of Zoological Society, Kolkata (1998) and Fellow of the Society of Applied Sciences, India (2010). His biography has been cited in the Who’s Who in Science and Engineering 2006-2007 (Marquis, USA). The Academic Forum of the Society of Earthworm Ecology and Environmental Research (SEEER) awarded Certificate of Appreciation to him as an Earthworm Biologist in 2012. He was selected as one of the “Inspiring Teacher of Tripura University”, Tripura in 2013. He has been honored with “Science Excellence Award” in 2015 and “Bharat Siksha Ratan Award” in 2016.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Vermicompost is a nutritive organic fertilizer rich in NPK, micronutrients, beneficial soil microbes and increases plant growth and its yield. Tea (Camellia sinensis) is an economically important and intensively managed cash crop in Tripura. Earthworms play a significant role in the structure of soils and its over-all above ground crop productivity.

Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: The present study was conducted during January 2015 to November 2016 at Harishnagar Tea estate (Tripura, India) to study the effects of different doses of vermicompost on tea production and earthworm population. The experiment was set up with 3 different amounts of vermicompost [T0 (control), T1 (5 tons ha-1 yr-1), T2 (10 tons ha-1 yr-1) and T3 (15 tons ha-1 yr-1)] each having 4 replicas in the plots of 2-year-old tea plants. Evaluation of different plant parameters was assessed. Earthworms were also collected by hand digging and sorting method during the experimental period to determine species composition, density and biomass. Composite soil samples from each experimental plot were collected for soil analysis.

Findings: Among all the experimental plots, highest values of pH (5.49), electrical conductivity (865 µMho), organic carbon (2.29%), available phosphorus (25.25 mg%) and potassium (60.25 mg%), TPC (0.522 mg GAE/g sample) and TFC (1.576 mg QEE/g sample) estimation of tea leaf was observed significantly in T3 plot in the second experimental period (2016). During the second year (2016), average leaf length (8.81 cm) and leaf width (3.55 cm), number of tea leaf plucks (10.17 plant-1) and total leaf production (92.71 tons ha-1 yr-1) were significantly highest in the T3 plot. A total of only 3 earthworm species viz. exotic, Pontoscolex corethrurus (60%), Metaphire houlleti (24%) and native, Drawida assamensis (15%) were collected from the experimental plots. A significant (p<0.05) but gradual increase in density and biomass of earthworms were also recorded in the second year (2016) with the increase in the amounts of vermicompost. In fine, it is advocated that application of vermicompost in the tropical soils of tea agro-ecosystem promotes plant growth and increases the crop yield through increase in density and biomass of earthworms.

Biography:

Ebrahim Shokoohi is an Iranian Plant Pathologist, Nematologist, and Assistant Professor at Iranian University and Post-doctoral Fellow at North-West University of South Africa. His research focuses on plant-parasitic and beneficial nematodes. He has written several papers and book chapters after years of experience in research and teaching at university level. The main focusing of his research is on molecular and morphological taxonomy of nematodes.

Abstract:

Nematode surveys in South African grain crop production areas were conducted in maize and soybean fields, and weeds associated with the crops. The abundance, occurrence and identity of the economically most important nematode pests of such hosts were hence determined. Results indicated that Meloidogyne spp. and Pratylenchus spp. were generally the most abundant plant-parasitic nematode crops infecting these crops and weeds. However, Meloidogyne spp. is the most destructive and distributed nematodes in these cultivated areas. Morphological studies based on perineal pattern morphology of Meloidogyne species revealed that M. incognita and M. javanica were the two predominant species in the grain production areas South Africa. Molecular studies of Meloidogyne based on the COI and NADH5 genes of the mtDNA and the D2-D3 segments of 28S rDNA indicated that the populations studied belonged to those species. However, the phylogenetic position of these species is still unresolved. Identification of the species based on the SCAR-PCR also showed M. javanica and M. incognita as the most dominant species. In conclusion, this study represents an extensive initiative to get a better understanding of the Meloidogyne spp. as well as other plant parasitic nematodes that currently hamper local grain seed production.

Asad AlKhader

National Center for Agricultural Research and Extension (NCARE), Jordan

Title: Effect of different levels of nitrogen on yield and quality of drip fertigated watermelon
Biography:

Asad AlKhader has completed his PhD in Horticulture and Crop Science from University of Jordan in 2012; MSc in Soil and Irrigation from the same university. He is working as a Researcher on soil water and nutrient management issues at National Center for Agricultural Research and Extension (NCARE). He has published five papers in reputed journals and has been serving as a member of fertilizer committee in his country (Jordan). He is also disseminating new irrigation and fertigation technologies among farmers through a pilot project implemented in irrigated areas in Jordan.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: The scarcity of water resources in Jordan and increasing concerns for groundwater pollution by agricultural contaminants make it important to improve irrigation and fertilization efficiency. Under such arid situations, water and nitrogen are regarded as the most important limiting factors for crop production. Fertigation provides an excellent opportunity to improve crop yield and enhance its quality, and minimize environmental pollution by controlling fertilizers and irrigation water application. Watermelon is one of the major irrigated vegetable crops in Jordan and responds well to fertilization. The objective of the current study was to determine the optimum level of N applied by drip fertigation for higher watermelon yield and quality.

Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: A field trial was conducted to investigate the effect of five different levels of nitrogen (N0=0, N1=10, N2=20, N3=30 and N4=40 ppm N) on crop yield and fruit quality of watermelon. Nitrogen (ammonium sulfate form) was applied through injection into the drip irrigation system (fertigation). Irrigation events were scheduled using soil moisture tensiometer and evaporation Class A-pan.

Findings: The results of the study indicated that addition of N using fertigation had a significant effect on yield parameters represented by the total and commercial yields, total dry matter, average plant yield, fruit number per plant, and total fruit number per ha. Crop yield increased significantly with increasing N level in the irrigation water, as follows: N4=N3>N2=N1>N0. Additionally, increasing the level of N induced significant increases in the length of the fruit. A significant effect for the N level on irrigation water use efficiency was, also, noticed.

Conclusion & Significance: Fertigation can be considered an efficient and significant method in the delivery of N to watermelon, as the crop yield and, to some extent, fruit quality can be improved.

Recommendations: It is recommended to apply N fertilizers to the watermelon crop via irrigation water at a concentration of 30 to 40 ppm N, and at a rate of 70 to 95 kg N/ha, under similar environmental conditions. 

Biography:

Idris Abd Ghani has expertise in integrated pest management focusing on maximizing the use of reared and field natural enemy populations. He is always referred to for pest management program. He is currently working on developing integrated approach for controlling red palm weevil and research on the main oil palm pollinator.

Abstract:

Oil palm is the main industrial crop contributing up to 30% of Malaysia national revenue. To date, about 5.5 million ha (60%) of agricultural land area is being planted with oil palm. Despite the rapid growth of the industry, the sustainable oil palm yield production remains prone to insect pests damage and its pollinators. In Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah, bagworms remain the major insect pest, followed by the rhinoceros beetle in replanting areas. In Sarawak, bunch moth and termite are the major threats which are more related to those oil palm trees planted on peat soil. The potential of a new invasive insect pest, red palm weevils (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) (RPW) of causing severe damage to Malaysian oil industry need serious attention. Sustainable management of the insect pests with short and long term effects is being practiced by most plantations. For bagworms, the integrated pest management (IPM) approach of census and detection followed by application of Bacillus thuringiensis or selective insecticides, planting of beneficial plants and mass trapping seemed to reduce bagworms population without endangering the environment. Good agricultural practices like planting of cover crops, proper management of biomass residues and the use of microbes such as Metarhizium have successfully used to control rhinoceros beetle during replanting period. Bunch moth and termites remain critical insect pests in peat areas. Similar approaches employed to reduce their infestation. No specific control measure yet recommended for controlling RPW in Malaysia except using pheromone trap. The inefficiency of oil palm pollinators, Elaeidobius kamerunicus that linked to low fresh fruit bunch (FFB) production is serious problem to the oil palm industries and Malaysian economy. This paper presents updated information on the control and management of major insect pest of oil palm as well as latest research finding on the relationship between EK inefficiency and FFB produced.

 

Rubinovich L

Ministry of Agriculture, Israel

Title: Frost protection in avocado orchards
Biography:

Rubinovich L completed his Graduation from Hebrew University of Jerusalem and has expertise in sub-tropical crops, especially avocado. Among his avocado-related research topics are: Improving frost tolerance using frost mitigation techniques; Identifying the physiological factors involved in frost tolerance and sensitivity; Development of frost-tolerant avocado plants; Development of avocado tissue culture; Development of new high-quality varieties; and Improving yield and lowering alternate bearing.

Abstract:

Avocado (Persea americana) is an important evergreen fruit crop, grown in several countries with tropical and subtropical climates. Damage from frost, an environmental condition in which the temperature drops below the freezing point of water, is a key factor in reducing avocado crop yields; for example, during 2016 economic loss from frost damaged avocado in Israel was estimated at 15 million USD. In many cases, frost damage can be significantly reduced by active measures such as stirring air layers with wind machines and sprinkling water over trees during the frost. However, little is known about the efficacy of these methods in avocado orchards. The present study aimed to evaluate and compare the efficiency of several frost mitigation techniques in commercial avocado orchards in Israel. For this purpose, over-canopy water irrigation sprinklers (WIS), a horizontal wind machine (HWM), and a vertical wind machine (VWM) were deployed and operated during several consecutive frost events. Frost mitigation efficiency was assessed by measuring air temperature and bud damage, and by assessing flowering intensity in the following spring. Of the tested methods: WIS successfully raised air temperature, reduced bud damage and maintained high flowering intensity; similar effects were observed with the HWM at ranges up to 150 or 50 m`, respectively, when the air could or could not pass freely between the trees; in contrast, the positive effect of VWM in frost damage prevention was very minor, extending only for 20 m`. In conclusion, among the different methods examined in this study, WIS appeared to show the best overall efficiency in frost damage prevention. Further research should be conducted, to confirm and extend these results.

Biography:

Samaporn Saengyot has completed her PhD at the age of 34 years from Kasetsart University, Thailand she is the a lecturer in plant protection program teaching and conducting research in as well as extension work basically in biological control of insect pests and weeds and integrated pest management at Maejo University which is one of the rural universities in Thailand. Currently, she is also in the process of establishing a research and training center provisionally called “Maejo University Biological Control Technology Learning Center” (MJU-BCTLC) to conduct research and training in biological control of insect pests and weeds and pest management technology. 

Abstract:

The highlight of biological control in Thailand began in 1975. Both augmentative and classical biological control were carried out covering a wide variety of insect pests, some on a stand-alone basis and some as a component within the context of an integrated pest management system. Altogether more than 10 species of natural enemies were utilized in augmentative biological control, while more than 30 species of insect natural enemies were introduced into the country.  In addition there were introductions of more than 40 species of insect natural enemies from Thailand for biological control in other countries within and outside the ASEAN region. All of these activities have resulted to a significant degree in a number of a short-term, medium-term, and long-term national, regional and international cooperation and collaboration projects in biological control.

Gurudatt M Hegde

University of Agricultural Sciences, India

Title: Integrated management of pod rot disease of cocoa
Biography:

Gurudatt M Hegde has completed his PhD in Plant Pathology from the University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, and Karnataka, India. He is a recipient of gold medals for the Academic performance during his MSc Agri. and PhD. He has sizeable number of national and international publications to his credit. Currently, he is working as Assistant Professor of Plant Pathology in the Institute of Organic Farming, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India with focused research on use of biofungicides for the management of plant diseases under laboratory, polyhouse and field conditions. He is also involved in mass production of biofungicides to cater the needs of farming community. He has visited Kazakhstan, Israel, USA (Nebraska State) and Srilanka for presentation of research information and trainings on Integrated Pest and Disease Management. 

Abstract:

Cocoa is an important commercial plantation crop of the world. Cocoa is a crop of humid tropics and so it was introduced as a mixed crop in India in areas where the environments suit the crop. It is cultivated in coconut and areca nut plantations in large scale from 1970 onwards. It is grown as an under storey intercrop with sufficient shade in southern states of India. In India, the current production is about 12,000 Metric Tons. Diseases are major risk to productivity and quality of harvest which in turn affects the returns to the farmers. This crop suffers heavily due to pod rot disease caused by Phytophthora palmivira causing yield loss up to 60 per cent. To overcome the pod rot disease, menace the experiment was conducted during 2012-13 and 2013-14 in the farmer’s field of Sirsi taluk of Uttara Kannada district. The results revealed that, sequential spray of Metalaxyl MZ 68WP at 0.2% followed by Pseudomonas fluorescens at 1% at 15 days interval has significantly reduced the pod rot disease severity in Cocoa (20.07%). This is followed by Mancozeb at 0.25% Pseudomonas fluorescens at 1%, and Bordeaux mixture (1%) - Pseudomonas fluorescens at 1%. The reduction in disease severity has reflected in increase in yields of cocoa. The plots sprayed with Metalaxyl MZ 68WP - Pseudomonas fluorescens has recorded highest yields of 518.21 kg of dry beans/ha followed by 436.17 and 433.63 kg/ha respectively in Mancozeb - Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bordeaux mixture- Pseudomonas fluorescens. The maximum disease severity was recorded in untreated control plots (46.15%) with the yields of 337.27 kg/ha. The highest net returns of Rs. 62,007 (approx. 1000USD) were recorded in Metalaxyl MZ 68WP-Pseudomonas fluorescens sprayed plots. Thus, integration of chemicals with biological control agents was found promising in management of pod rot disease of Cocoa. 

Biography:

P.Nagaraju has completed PhD in Plant Pathology from University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India. And at present, is working as Senior Scientist (Plant Pathology) in All India Co-ordinated Improvement Project on groundnut, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India. He has got rich experience for more than 20 years in research, teaching and extension. He has published more than 20 research papers in reputed journals in national and international journals.

Abstract:

A field experiment was carried out during wet seasons in 2012, 2013 and 2014 at Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India to know the effect of different integrated management practices against major diseases (late leaf spot, rust and stem rot) of groundnut. Among different integrated management practices, seed treatment with Tebuconazole (@1.5 g/kg) and two sprays of Tebuconazole (@1.0 ml/L) had controlled late leaf spot most effectively by recording the lowest percent disease index (PDI) of 21.57. The same treatment was also found significantly effective against rust and stem rot also (18.02 and 4.58 PDI, respectively). However, maximum pod yield was recorded in seed treatment with Mancozeb (@3.0 g/kg) and two sprays of Hexaconazole (@1.0 ml/L) (3477.08 kg/ha) followed by soil application of Trichoderma harzianum (@ 4.0 kg/ha) + Neem cake (@250 kg/ha) and two sprays of Hexaconazole (@1.0 ml/L) (3243.64 kg/ha). On the basis of economics, seed treatment with Mancozeb (@3.0 g/kg) and two sprays of Hexaconazole (@1.0 ml/L) has been found to be the most remunerative management practice with a cost benefit ratio of 1:3.41.

Biography:

Tanzima Yeasmin completed his PhD, Master’s degree and BSc in Biochemistry at Rajshahi University, Bangladesh in 2002, 1991 and 1986 respectively. He has extended his valuable service as a Professor in 2008 and has been a recipient of many award and grants. Currently, he is working as a Professor in Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh. His international experience includes various programs, contributions and participation in different countries for diverse fields of study. His research interests as a Professor reflect in his wide range of publications in various national and international journals. 

Abstract:

Food production is increased more than three times. This success is due to high yielding crop varieties, agrochemicals, irrigation system and chemical fertilizers. High input use has led to increased land degradation, pest resistance, loss of soil fertility, nutrient imbalance and depletion of soil organic matter etc. In the light of these problems, the use of organic fertilizers, biofertilizers i.e. microbial products are crucial to make the agriculture industry a viable component of a healthy and pleasant ecosystem. Thus, incorporation of the natural roles of beneficial microorganisms in maintaining soil fertility and plant productivity is gaining importance and may be an important approach. To identify mycorrhizal occurrence and association among different plants in Rajshahi university campus, mycorrizal association was observed and percentage of root colonization were varied from 10-90%. Symbiotic association of about 85% plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi plays an essential role in plant growth, plant protection. AMF improve phosphate intake for the plants when phosphate availability is limited; and hence, beneficial to plant growth. The frequency of mycorrhizal infection was significantly correlated with soil pH, moisture, water holding capacity, texture, total nitrogen, organic, calcium, magnesium, potassium etc. This investigation showed that especially phosphorus and nitrogen in the soil greatly influenced the plant root infection by AM. Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal spores were extracted from rizhosphere soils using sucrose density gradient centrifugation, wet sieving method. Codiaeum variegatum could be considered as the initial natural source of AM and used as the stock plant to provide inoculum of AM for biofertilizer. Inoculation with AMF improves plant growth and productivity, nutrient profile, and thereby crop improvement. AMF could be used as a biofertilizers in the future towards sustainable agriculture in reducing problems associated with the use of chemicals.