Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 11th World Congress on Plant Biotechnology & Agriculture Paris, France.

Day 2 :

Keynote Forum

Fabienne Trolard

INRA-UAPV, UMR EMMAH, France

Keynote: How to address sustainability in agriculture?

Time : 10:00-10:40

OMICS International Agri World 2018 International Conference Keynote Speaker Fabienne Trolard photo
Biography:

Fabienne Trolard is a permanent Researcher at the UMR INRA-UAPV with a PhD and “Aggregation of French Higher Education” in Earth Sciences, specializing in Mineral Geochemistry and Geophysics. She has been working at INRA, for more than 25 years in Soil and Environmental Sciences. She co-created the INRA lab (Geochemistry of Soil and Water) at Aix-en-Provence in 2000 and was its Leader for 6 years (2004-2009). She was the INRA Scientific Leader of the Astuce & Tic program (2008-2011) and Lead of the pathfinder PRECOS (2013-2014) and PRECOS Business (2015-2016). Since 1986, she has published over 280 papers and supervised 16 PhD candidates and 3 post-doctorates. She teaches at the universities of Aix-Marseilles (Master MAEVA), Poitiers (Master NMAC, Eramus Mundus) and Avignon (CNAM-Ecole des Arts
et Métiers).

Abstract:

In the world, agriculture developed 10,000 years ago, most of plant and animal species of man’s interest have been domesticated. Today's agriculture still relies almost exclusively on these same species. According to global changes and the challenges of food security, scientists are being questioned by decision-makers and stakeholders in the territories on the sustainability of agrosystems. Valuable information on this topic and recommendations can be derived from the study of practices and processes related to agriculture over time. Long-time (up to 1,000 years), middle-time (around 50-60 years) and short-time (one hour to 3-4 months) studies illustrate hereafter the field of possibilities to produce this information. In the first example, the period from 4500 years BP till date was explored by the help of palynological determinations of pollens extracted from a continuous 720-cm core drilled on the delta of Mirna River (gulf of Venice) in the coastal zone of the Adriatic Sea. With an average chronological resolution for core stratigraphy of 7 years per cm, a succession of agro-pastoral activities has been observed, with cereals (about 3000 years BP), olive growing, viticulture and orchards (about 2000 years BP). It can also be noted the abandonment of all agricultural activities in this zone during more than 600 years, which can be ascribed to the consequence of the major volcanic eruption of Santorini (1,650 years BC). In the second example, the consequences of intensive agriculture of the last 60 years have been studied in two agro-systems in the South-East of France: In the rice cropping in Camargue and in the meadows in Crau’s area (hay production with a COP label). In Camargue, X-ray diffraction on the clay fraction in the paddy soils, compared to a control, show a significant increase of the clay crystallinity in the paddy soil, which implies a decrease of their solubility and thus of silica bioavailability for plant growth. The sustainability of rice crop system requires the clearing of silica exportations. In Crau’s area, long-term database concerning hay’s mineral content, dry matter and climate dynamics have been statistically analyzed. Results show a steady state (in quantity and quality) of the production despite an average temperature increase of 1.9 °C since 1960. Our findings suggest that irrigation, both with the water inputs and quality of water, has played a key role for the sustainability of hay production since the 16th century. In the third example, the short time (~1 hour intervals) of processes in agriculture has been explored during several rice crop seasons by in situ monitoring of water in waterlogged soils. Relationships between variations of the chemical composition of water and plant growth have been established from field data. Kinetical modeling of digestion of nitrogen fertilization by the agro-system has been proposed and allow for separating biotic from abiotic processes and defining characteristic times of relaxation.

OMICS International Agri World 2018 International Conference Keynote Speaker John M Jemison photo
Biography:

John M Jemison is an Extension Professor of Soil and Water Quality. He conducts applied research and educational outreach programs to encourage growers and homeowners to implement practices to improve soil quality and protect surface and ground water supplies. With projects like the Orono Community Garden, he teaches volunteers to grow food using organic practices and understand civic agriculture. His agricultural research focuses on nutrient and weed management strategies to improve soil health and crop productivity, integrating crop and livestock operations, reducing crop production impact to water resources and increasing resilience of cropping systems to change climate through reducing tillage and improving soil health. He is also a Cooperating Professor with the School of Food and Agriculture. 

Abstract:

Maine farmers have become increasingly concerned about variable weather conditions affecting current and long-term productivity. In 2011, we conducted 15 focus groups in a program called ‘Assessing Maine’s Agricultural Future - 2025’ and we asked farmers: What changes are you making on your farm relative to recent weather patterns? As one might expect, responses ranged from challenging us that weather is indeed more variable now than previously, to others saying that they had adopted numerous practices including no-till production, purchased irrigation equipment and installed tile drainage. Fruit producers, particularly apple and blueberry growers were most concerned about variable weather, while potato and
dairy producers seemed least concerned and more entrenched with their production methods. Since then, we have developed a focused applied research and extension outreach effort to dairy and potato growers to work on improving soil quality to increase climate resilience. While cold wet soils were once thought to prohibit, no-till production in Maine, some dairy farmers even in northern parts of Maine have adopted the practice. We recently surveyed early adopters to find out why they changed and sampled fields to assess soil health. While most mentioned reduced fuel use, labor and time as key drivers, some discussed improving soil quality. Interestingly, we asked farmers to identify fields they wanted information on soil health and to tell us which fields they thought would have the best and worst soil health scores. They were correct, only 40% of the time indicating that they don’t fully understand soil quality. Our efforts to make potato production systems more resilient have centered on reducing tillage where possible (such as one-pass hilling), evaluating the use of nurse crops to protect soils before
plant emergence, adopting longer rotations and integrating crop and livestock farms. Key field experimental results will be highlighted in the presentation.

OMICS International Agri World 2018 International Conference Keynote Speaker Jaime Malaga photo
Biography:

Jaime Malaga is a Professor of Agricultural and Applied Economics at Texas Tech University, has 20 years of experience analyzing effects of international trade and agricultural development. He teaches agricultural trade and agribusiness marketing in graduate classes and has provided professional consulting services to several agencies including the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, The Agency for International Development and the US Department of Agriculture

Abstract:

Strong increase on per capita consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables in developed countries offers a high value market
opportunity for labor intense, small farm size agriculture of developing countries. Improvements on transportation technologies and proliferation of free trade agreements have made possible, a surge on exports of horticultural products with important effects on rural income and employment for some exporting countries. International organizations have emphasized the effects of these trends on agricultural development of some lower income nations. However, a strong competition for high value horticultural markets may be causing huge disparities in terms of relative success by exporting countries. Our research uses a combination of market share analysis and statistical trends to evaluate the relative performance of several Latin American countries in their efforts to penetrate and compete in the high value, large volume US market for fruits and vegetables in the last sixteen years. Results show great diversity of performances by country and product with losing and
gaining trends. Bananas, fruit juices and frozen vegetables present diminishing market shares while imports of avocados, mangoes, grapes, asparagus and broccoli expanded constantly. On the other hand, Peru, Mexico, Chile, Guatemala and Costa Rica show double digit growth export rates while countries like Ecuador, Colombia, Honduras and most of the Caribbean Islands present a relative poorer performance. The paper attempts to establish a relationship of relative export success with factors like existence of trade agreements, phytosanitary protocols, export infrastructure, government programs and business environment. We think that important lessons can be learned from this analysis for developing countries trying to benefit of the high value horticultural markets of developed countries. 

  • Rice & Wheat Research | Plant Biotechnology | Plant Pathology | Entomology

Session Introduction

S Leelavathi

International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, India

Title: Efficient transformation of submergence tolerant deep-water rice of North-East India and fast recovery of transgenic plants
Biography:

S Leelavathi has completed her PhD in Anther Cultures of different Brassica spp. and has equal expertise in rice anther culture and haploid generation at Bose Institute, Kolkata, India. At ICGEB, New Delhi, she is focusing on chloroplast transformation and expression of foreign genes including several cellulolytic enzymes, which resulted in several original papers and patents. She is also specialized in nuclear transformation techniques of different plants including rice, cotton, tomato, lentil, etc. Her research in cotton regeneration using metabolic stress and transformation using embryogenic callus as explants for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is an important landmark not only in cotton biotechnology, but other crops as well. Presently, she is interested in use of plant produced cellulolytic enzymes in biofuel research and submergence tolerance in rice and transformation in pulses.

Abstract:

Rice is an important staple food for more than two billion people worldwide. Huge losses occur due to biotic and abiotic stresses. Submergence due to flash floods or heavy rains is a major abiotic stress affecting productivity of rice in low-lying areas. In northeast region of India well known for major genetic diversity of rice, several varieties are submergent tolerant for long periods. There are at least two different mechanisms involved in the submergence tolerance in rice, one mediated by Snorkel pathway and the other by Sub1 pathways. In order to characterize the functional role of each of the gene(s) involved in the submergence tolerance in these pathways, efficient transformation methods are needed for these genotypes. Here we present data on efficient transformation of two deep-water rice of North-East region of India namely Taothabi and Khongan. Transgenic rice plants that can be grown in the
greenhouse were obtained in 35-45 days starting from the callus induction and co-cultivation by Agrobacterium. Molecular analysis confirmed stable integration and expression of reporter GUS gene. In addition to over express or down regulate genes involved in submergence tolerance, the methods developed will accelerate the functional validation of candidate genes identified through genomics studies.

Biography:

Yildiz Aydin has completed her PhD degree from Marmara University, Department of Biology in 2003. Her expertise lies in plant tissue culture and application of PCR-based molecular markers to plant germplasm. Her current research work involves researching haploid plant production protocols for sunflower

Abstract:

Haploid plants that inherit chromosomes from only one parent significantly facilitate the search and selection of favorable genes and the development of breeding genotypes. Haploidization techniques facilitate the production of pure lines from heterozygous plants in a single generation and represent significant advantages for plant breeders. Haploids can be induced by in vivo or in vitro methods. The in vitro methods that have been developed to induce embryogenesis are androgenesis, gynogenesis including parthenogenesis induced primarily by pollination with irradiated pollen followed by embryo rescue. Cultivated sunflower is a globally important oilseed, food, and ornamental crop. The main objective of the study on the production of haploid sunflower plants is to accelerate breeding programs through the use of homozygous broomrape and herbicide-resistant double haploid lines.
The influence of pollen irradiation on the production of in vitro haploid plants from in situ induced haploid embryos was investigated in sunflower. Immature flower buds of the ovule donors were emasculated prior to anthesis and were bagged to avoid unwanted outcrossing. Pollinations were carried out on field plants, bagged before anthesis. For pollen inactivation were applied the gamma
60Co irradiation doses: 500 Gy, 1000 Gy and 1500 Gy. Irradiated pollens were used for pollinating the flower buds of the ovule donor. 14-16 days after pollination, immature embryos were observed on binocular microscope for detecting the embryo stage and then transferred to four different MS medium without any plant growth regulators to facilitate the maturation and development of plants. Concerning the number of embryos formed were obtained in pollen inactivation with doses 750 and1000 Gy. Nuclear DNA content of control (diploid) and haploid sunflower plants were evaluated by chromosome analysis and flow cytometry having “n” number of
chromosome set. 

Biography:

Ahu Altinkut Uncuoğlu is currently working as Faculty of Engineering, Department of Bioengineering, Marmara University. She has completed her PhD at TUBITAK Marmara Research Center in 2001. Her research interest and specializations include biotic (plant diseases) and abiotic (drought and salt stresses) stress tolerance in crops at molecular level, molecular breeding, Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) studies in plant breeding, plant tissue culture and haploid plant production, association mapping and DNA barcoding studies in plants, understanding plant biodiversity at molecular level, technology transfer and university-industry relations in biotechnology area.

Abstract:

Marker-assisted breeding is defined as the application of molecular markers in combination with linkage maps and genomics, to alter and improve plant traits on the basis of genotypic assays. Yellow rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici, is one of the major devastating factors worldwide in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). It is vital to identify associated DNA markers for Yr
genes that can be used for marker assisted selection in wheat breeding programs to develop new cultivars with higher resistance. Here we report on the identification of six polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based DNA markers (Xgwm382, Xgwm311, wmc658, PK54, BU099658, C6) linked with yellow rust resistance. Another issue requiring marker-assisted breeding are resistance for Plasmopara halstedii responsible for downy mildew disease and Orobanche cumana, holoparasitic plant called as sunflower broomrape, lead to
loss of yield discount up to 100%. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers linked with Pl8, Pl13 and Plarg resistance genes for downy mildew disease in combination with competitive allele specific PCR (KASP) assay which is a fluorescent tagged allele specific PCR method that is more efficient way to determine SNPs like insertions and deletions than other PCR techniques were identified. SNP markers (NSA2220 and NSA2251 for Pl8 gene, NSA0052 and NSA0354 for Pl13 gene, NSA2867 and NSA6138 for Plarg gene) were found discriminative among resistant and susceptible parents and their F2 populations. Also, evaluation of O. cumana races by KASP assay has been performed and SNP197 marker converted from the one SSR marker (Ocum-197), was found as a distinctive marker for O. cumana races. All these efforts mentioned above show the potential use and power of PCR-based and sequence-based DNA markers in plant breeding programs particularly for disease resistance in wheat and sunflower.

Biography:

Pooran Chand has expertise in teaching and development of wheat and rice varieties with reference to heat and drought tolerant through conventional and nonconventional methods. He has published more than 50 research papers in different reputed research journals and associated in the development and releasing of 14 varieties in different crops.

Abstract:

The effects of heat stress on wheat are dependent on the intensity, type and duration of the stress. High temperature represents a major constraint affecting wheat, particularly at the reproductive stage, in many parts of the world. While a systematic understanding of the physiological basis of differences in heat tolerance of wheat cultivars are lacking, a number of physiological traits
are associated with performance under heat stress and may be used to increase selection efficiency. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the relationship between canopy temperature depression, membrane thermo-stability and other physiological traits with grain yield and yield-contributing traits under heat stress environments in wheat and identification of suitable genotypes for higher production and productivity in the target environments. An experiment was conducted during winter season of 2015-16 using 48 diverse wheat genotypes with three dates of sowing (15 November, 15 December and 5 January) to assess the relationship of physiological parameters with grain yield under heat-stress environments. The analysis of normal, late and very late sowing, revealed that all the characters showed sufficient amount of variability in all three environments among all the genotypes under study
and gives ample scope for further selection of the traits under consideration. Maximum variation was observed for characters, like canopy temperature depression and membrane injury. Most of the characters had high heritability (broad sense) in pooled analysis. Traits, like canopy temperature depression (at anthesis), canopy temperature depression (10 days after anthesis), membrane injury, had high heritability estimates and which can be utilized as selection criteria in stress environments. Grain yield showed positive and significant genotypic correlation coefficients with canopy temperature depression at anthesis, canopy temperature depression at 10 days after anthesis and membrane injury per cent. Based on the genotypic coefficient of variation, phenotypic coefficient of variation, genetic advance and heritability, the traits canopy temperature depression at anthesis, canopy temperature depression at 10 days after anthesis, membrane injury percent and relative water content can be used as selection criteria for improving the grain yield heat tress environment.