Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 11th World Congress on Plant Biotechnology & Agriculture Paris, France.

Day 2 :

Keynote Forum

Fabienne Trolard

INRA-UAPV, UMR EMMAH, France

Keynote: How to address sustainability in agriculture?

Time : 10:00-10:40

OMICS International Agri World 2018 International Conference Keynote Speaker Fabienne Trolard photo
Biography:

Fabienne Trolard is a permanent Researcher at the UMR INRA-UAPV with a PhD and “Aggregation of French Higher Education” in Earth Sciences, specializing in Mineral Geochemistry and Geophysics. She has been working at INRA, for more than 25 years in Soil and Environmental Sciences. She co-created the INRA lab (Geochemistry of Soil and Water) at Aix-en-Provence in 2000 and was its Leader for 6 years (2004-2009). She was the INRA Scientific Leader of the Astuce & Tic program (2008-2011) and Lead of the pathfinder PRECOS (2013-2014) and PRECOS Business (2015-2016). Since 1986, she has published over 280 papers and supervised 16 PhD candidates and 3 post-doctorates. She teaches at the universities of Aix-Marseilles (Master MAEVA), Poitiers (Master NMAC, Eramus Mundus) and Avignon (CNAM-Ecole des Arts
et Métiers).

Abstract:

In the world, agriculture developed 10,000 years ago, most of plant and animal species of man’s interest have been domesticated. Today's agriculture still relies almost exclusively on these same species. According to global changes and the challenges of food security, scientists are being questioned by decision-makers and stakeholders in the territories on the sustainability of agrosystems. Valuable information on this topic and recommendations can be derived from the study of practices and processes related to agriculture over time. Long-time (up to 1,000 years), middle-time (around 50-60 years) and short-time (one hour to 3-4 months) studies illustrate hereafter the field of possibilities to produce this information. In the first example, the period from 4500 years BP till date was explored by the help of palynological determinations of pollens extracted from a continuous 720-cm core drilled on the delta of Mirna River (gulf of Venice) in the coastal zone of the Adriatic Sea. With an average chronological resolution for core stratigraphy of 7 years per cm, a succession of agro-pastoral activities has been observed, with cereals (about 3000 years BP), olive growing, viticulture and orchards (about 2000 years BP). It can also be noted the abandonment of all agricultural activities in this zone during more than 600 years, which can be ascribed to the consequence of the major volcanic eruption of Santorini (1,650 years BC). In the second example, the consequences of intensive agriculture of the last 60 years have been studied in two agro-systems in the South-East of France: In the rice cropping in Camargue and in the meadows in Crau’s area (hay production with a COP label). In Camargue, X-ray diffraction on the clay fraction in the paddy soils, compared to a control, show a significant increase of the clay crystallinity in the paddy soil, which implies a decrease of their solubility and thus of silica bioavailability for plant growth. The sustainability of rice crop system requires the clearing of silica exportations. In Crau’s area, long-term database concerning hay’s mineral content, dry matter and climate dynamics have been statistically analyzed. Results show a steady state (in quantity and quality) of the production despite an average temperature increase of 1.9 °C since 1960. Our findings suggest that irrigation, both with the water inputs and quality of water, has played a key role for the sustainability of hay production since the 16th century. In the third example, the short time (~1 hour intervals) of processes in agriculture has been explored during several rice crop seasons by in situ monitoring of water in waterlogged soils. Relationships between variations of the chemical composition of water and plant growth have been established from field data. Kinetical modeling of digestion of nitrogen fertilization by the agro-system has been proposed and allow for separating biotic from abiotic processes and defining characteristic times of relaxation.

OMICS International Agri World 2018 International Conference Keynote Speaker John M Jemison photo
Biography:

John M Jemison is an Extension Professor of Soil and Water Quality. He conducts applied research and educational outreach programs to encourage growers and homeowners to implement practices to improve soil quality and protect surface and ground water supplies. With projects like the Orono Community Garden, he teaches volunteers to grow food using organic practices and understand civic agriculture. His agricultural research focuses on nutrient and weed management strategies to improve soil health and crop productivity, integrating crop and livestock operations, reducing crop production impact to water resources and increasing resilience of cropping systems to change climate through reducing tillage and improving soil health. He is also a Cooperating Professor with the School of Food and Agriculture. 

Abstract:

Maine farmers have become increasingly concerned about variable weather conditions affecting current and long-term productivity. In 2011, we conducted 15 focus groups in a program called ‘Assessing Maine’s Agricultural Future - 2025’ and we asked farmers: What changes are you making on your farm relative to recent weather patterns? As one might expect, responses ranged from challenging us that weather is indeed more variable now than previously, to others saying that they had adopted numerous practices including no-till production, purchased irrigation equipment and installed tile drainage. Fruit producers, particularly apple and blueberry growers were most concerned about variable weather, while potato and
dairy producers seemed least concerned and more entrenched with their production methods. Since then, we have developed a focused applied research and extension outreach effort to dairy and potato growers to work on improving soil quality to increase climate resilience. While cold wet soils were once thought to prohibit, no-till production in Maine, some dairy farmers even in northern parts of Maine have adopted the practice. We recently surveyed early adopters to find out why they changed and sampled fields to assess soil health. While most mentioned reduced fuel use, labor and time as key drivers, some discussed improving soil quality. Interestingly, we asked farmers to identify fields they wanted information on soil health and to tell us which fields they thought would have the best and worst soil health scores. They were correct, only 40% of the time indicating that they don’t fully understand soil quality. Our efforts to make potato production systems more resilient have centered on reducing tillage where possible (such as one-pass hilling), evaluating the use of nurse crops to protect soils before
plant emergence, adopting longer rotations and integrating crop and livestock farms. Key field experimental results will be highlighted in the presentation.

OMICS International Agri World 2018 International Conference Keynote Speaker Jaime Malaga photo
Biography:

Jaime Malaga is a Professor of Agricultural and Applied Economics at Texas Tech University, has 20 years of experience analyzing effects of international trade and agricultural development. He teaches agricultural trade and agribusiness marketing in graduate classes and has provided professional consulting services to several agencies including the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, The Agency for International Development and the US Department of Agriculture

Abstract:

Strong increase on per capita consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables in developed countries offers a high value market
opportunity for labor intense, small farm size agriculture of developing countries. Improvements on transportation technologies and proliferation of free trade agreements have made possible, a surge on exports of horticultural products with important effects on rural income and employment for some exporting countries. International organizations have emphasized the effects of these trends on agricultural development of some lower income nations. However, a strong competition for high value horticultural markets may be causing huge disparities in terms of relative success by exporting countries. Our research uses a combination of market share analysis and statistical trends to evaluate the relative performance of several Latin American countries in their efforts to penetrate and compete in the high value, large volume US market for fruits and vegetables in the last sixteen years. Results show great diversity of performances by country and product with losing and
gaining trends. Bananas, fruit juices and frozen vegetables present diminishing market shares while imports of avocados, mangoes, grapes, asparagus and broccoli expanded constantly. On the other hand, Peru, Mexico, Chile, Guatemala and Costa Rica show double digit growth export rates while countries like Ecuador, Colombia, Honduras and most of the Caribbean Islands present a relative poorer performance. The paper attempts to establish a relationship of relative export success with factors like existence of trade agreements, phytosanitary protocols, export infrastructure, government programs and business environment. We think that important lessons can be learned from this analysis for developing countries trying to benefit of the high value horticultural markets of developed countries.