Day 2 :
Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela
Keynote: Proposal of regulations for pot-honey produced by four genera of Meliponini bees: Geotrigona, Melipona, Scaptotrigona, Tetragonisca in Ecuador
Time : 09:00 - 09:30
Patricia Vit has studied Biology and MSc Food Science at Universidad Simon Bolivar, Venezuela. She became Professor at Universidad de Los Andes in in 1985. She completed her PhD at Cardiff University, UK and Post-doctoral studies from National University of Singapore, School of Medicine and The University of Sydney, School of Medicine. She lived in Ecuador for one year with the Prometeo-SENESCYT grant at Universidad Técnica de Machala. She is the Founder Director of an initiative named Living Museum of Meliponini Bees in the World. She has published more than 100 papers in reputed journals, and 30 books as author or editor.
Megabiodiverse Ecuador is also knwon for the Meliponini entomofauna, with almost 100 species in the three Southernmost provinces El Oro, Loja and Zamora Chinchipe. The species chosen by ancestral knowledge of Ecuadorian stingless bee keepers for pot-honey production are known as “abeja de tierra” Geotrigona leucogastra, “angelita” Tetragonisca angustula, “bermejo” Melipona mimetica, “catiana” Scaptotrigona ederi. Along this research, 18 honeys were collected in El Oro, Esmeraldas, Loja and Manabí provinces. Chemical quality indicators used in the honey standards comprise water, free acidity, hydroxymethylfurfural, reducing sugars, apparent sucrose, ash contents. The quality standards of pot-honeys vary from those suggested by the Codex Alimentarius and adapted by National Honey Regulations for Apis mellifera. Great veriations are observed in our four genera. Geotrigona honey is very different from Apis mellifera and other Meliponini with water contents duplicating the honey standard, and free acidity with more than 800 meq/kg. Ash, hydroxymethylfurfural and apparent sucrose keep the same standard, but reducing sugars are lower than the minimum of 65 g/kg. The Colombian honey norm included new standards for native bees in the annex in 2007, Venezuela suggested to have standards of honey and pot-honey in the same norm in 2013, and Brazil created a norm for Melipona honey in the state of Bahia in 2014. Philippines is working on the concept to have both Apis mellifera and Tetragonula biroi quality standards in one honey norm. The NTE INEN 1572 Ecuadorian honey norm was reviewed in 2016 and decided a new norm is needed for pot-honey.
Gyeongsang National University, South Korea
Time : 09:30 - 10:00
Byoung Ryong Jeong has completed his PhD at the age of 31 years from Colorado State University, USA, and postdoctoral studies from University of Missouri-Columbia, USA, and Chiba University, Japan. He is a professor in Department of Horticulture and the Dean of College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Republic of Korea. He has published more than 250 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editor-in-chief of Horticulture, Environment and Biotechnology, and president of the Korean Society for Floricultural Science. rnrn
Silicon (Si) has been reported to alleviate abiotic stresses caused by salt, drought, low and high temperatures and metal toxicity, and to improve nutrient imbalance. It also has been found to be beneficial for improving the resistance to insects and pathogens, and therefore for crop quality and yield. It is known that Si gives the resistance to plants by both physically and metabolically. The extent of stress tolerance varies by plant species and even cultivars. Its beneficial effects have been reported to be particularly distinct in monocots such as rice. Yet there have been only limited number of reports on its effect in horticultural plants. Various horticultural plants fed with silicate have been examined in our recent studies for their growth and development, and responses to abiotic and biotic stresses including salt, drought, low and high temperatures, and some pathogens and insects. The species used include Ajuga multiflora, Allium tuberosum, Capsicum annuum, Cotoneaster wilsonii, Dendranthema grandiflorum, Dianthus caryophyllus, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nephrolepsis exaltata, Rosa hybrida, and Salvia splendens. Silicate-fed Dendranthema grandiflorum and Euphorbia pulcherrima tolerated both high temperature and drought stresses, while the control plants were severely affected. Silicate fertilization significantly affected growth of Nephrolepsis exaltata and silicate-treated plants had increased tolerance to temperature stress. Number of Bemisia tabaci naturally infesting Euphorbia pulcherrima in a glasshouse decreased by 91% in the treatment of 50 mg•L-1 K2SiO3 applied as foliar sprays as compared to that in the control. Florets affected by aphids in the control of Salvia splendens ‘Vista Red’ and ‘Sizzler Red’ was 67 and 45% as compared to 0 and 20% in the 100 mg•L-1 K2SiO3 treatment, respectively. Incidence of powdery mildew in Rosa hybrida ‘Remata’ by infection of Sphaerotheca fuliginea significantly decreased by 50 mg• L-1 K2SiO3 applied as foliar sprays as compared to that in the control. Antioxidant enzyme activity and chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) increased by silicate treatment. High salt represents a water deficit due to decreased osmotic potential in the soil solution. Shoot growth of Salvia splendens was strongly retarded by 50 mM NaCl treatment, while it was sustained when the plants were supplied with either 50 or 100 mg•L-1 Si at the same time. Some plug or micropropagated transplants and potted plants also showed their responses in terms of growth, tolerance to temperature or salt stress, ion leakage, and antioxidant enzyme activity as affected by silicate treatment. Incidence of hyperhydric shoots in micropropagated Cotoneaster wilsonii caused by high doses of TDZ and repeated subcultures was significantly reduced by supplementation of the culture medium with silicate. The results suggest strong possibility of enhanced tolerance of horticultural plants to abiotic and biotic stresses mediated by Si.